Neurons & Civiliations

dissabte, 19/01/2019

 

 Transcript  Translated by Thierry Barnier
Reviewed by Stephanie Curiel
I’d like to talk to you today about the human brain, which is what we do research on at the University of California. Just think about this problem for a second. Here is a lump of flesh, about three pounds, which you can hold in the palm of your hand. But it can contemplate the vastness of interstellar space. It can contemplate the meaning of infinity; ask questions about the meaning of its own existence, about the nature of God.

00:35

And this is truly the most amazing thing in the world. It’s the greatest mystery confronting human beings: How does this all come about? Well, the brain, as you know, is made up of neurons. We’re looking at neurons here. There are 100 billion neurons in the adult human brain. And each neuron makes something like 1,000 to 10,000 contacts with other neurons in the brain. And based on this, people have calculated that the number of permutations and combinations of brain activity exceeds the number of elementary particles in the universe.

 

01:02

So, how do you go about studying the brain? One approach is to look at patients who had lesions in different part of the brain, and study changes in their behavior. This is what I spoke about in the last TED. Today I’ll talk about a different approach, which is to put electrodes in different parts of the brain, and actually record the activity of individual nerve cells in the brain. Sort of eavesdrop on the activity of nerve cells in the brain.

 

01:23

Now, one recent discovery that has been made by researchers in Italy, in Parma, by Giacomo Rizzolatti and his colleagues, is a group of neurons called mirror neurons, which are on the front of the brain in the frontal lobes. Now, it turns out there are neurons which are called ordinary motor command neurons in the front of the brain, which have been known for over 50 years. These neurons will fire when a person performs a specific action. For example, if I do that, and reach and grab an apple, a motor command neuron in the front of my brain will fire. If I reach out and pull an object, another neuron will fire, commanding me to pull that object. These are called motor command neurons that have been known for a long time.

 

 

02:00

But what Rizzolatti found was a subset of these neurons, maybe about 20 percent of them, will also fire when I’m looking at somebody else performing the same action. So, here is a neuron that fires when I reach and grab something, but it also fires when I watch Joe reaching and grabbing something. And this is truly astonishing. Because it’s as though this neuron is adopting the other person’s point of view. It’s almost as though it’s performing a virtual reality simulation of the other person’s action.

 

 

02:27

Now, what is the significance of these mirror neurons? For one thing they must be involved in things like imitation and emulation. Because to imitate a complex act requires my brain to adopt the other person’s point of view. So, this is important for imitation and emulation. Well, why is that important? Well, let’s take a look at the next slide. So, how do you do imitation? Why is imitation important? Mirror neurons and imitation, emulation.

 

 

02:51

Now, let’s look at culture, the phenomenon of human culture. If you go back in time about [75,000] to 100,000 years ago, let’s look at human evolution, it turns out that something very important happened around 75,000 years ago. And that is, there is a sudden emergence and rapid spread of a number of skills that are unique to human beings like tool use, the use of fire, the use of shelters, and, of course, language, and the ability to read somebody else’s mind and interpret that person’s behavior. All of that happened relatively quickly.

 

 

03:20

Even though the human brain had achieved its present size almost three or four hundred thousand years ago, 100,000 years ago all of this happened very, very quickly. And I claim that what happened was the sudden emergence of a sophisticated mirror neuron system, which allowed you to emulate and imitate other people’s actions. So that when there was a sudden accidental discovery by one member of the group, say the use of fire, or a particular type of tool, instead of dying out, this spread rapidly, horizontally across the population, or was transmitted vertically, down the generations.

 

03:50

So, this made evolution suddenly Lamarckian, instead of Darwinian. Darwinian evolution is slow; it takes hundreds of thousands of years. A polar bear, to evolve a coat, will take thousands of generations, maybe 100,000 years. A human being, a child, can just watch its parent kill another polar bear, and skin it and put the skin on its body, fur on the body, and learn it in one step. What the polar bear took 100,000 years to learn, it can learn in five minutes, maybe 10 minutes. And then once it’s learned this it spreads in geometric proportion across a population.

 

 

04:23

This is the basis. The imitation of complex skills is what we call culture and is the basis of civilization. Now there is another kind of mirror neuron, which is involved in something quite different. And that is, there are mirror neurons, just as there are mirror neurons for action, there are mirror neurons for touch. In other words, if somebody touches me, my hand, neuron in the somato-sensory cortex in the sensory region of the brain fires. But the same neuron, in some cases, will fire when I simply watch another person being touched. So, it’s empathizing the other person being touched.

 

 

04:52

So, most of them will fire when I’m touched in different locations. Different neurons for different locations. But a subset of them will fire even when I watch somebody else being touched in the same location. So, here again you have neurons which are enrolled in empathy. Now, the question then arises: If I simply watch another person being touched, why do I not get confused and literally feel that touch sensation merely by watching somebody being touched? I mean, I empathize with that person but I don’t literally feel the touch. Well, that’s because you’ve got receptors in your skin, touch and pain receptors, going back into your brain and saying “Don’t worry, you’re not being touched. So, empathize, by all means, with the other person, but do not actually experience the touch, otherwise you’ll get confused and muddled.”

 

 

05:32

Okay, so there is a feedback signal that vetoes the signal of the mirror neuron preventing you from consciously experiencing that touch. But if you remove the arm, you simply anesthetize my arm, so you put an injection into my arm, anesthetize the brachial plexus, so the arm is numb, and there is no sensations coming in, if I now watch you being touched, I literally feel it in my hand. In other words, you have dissolved the barrier between you and other human beings. So, I call them Gandhi neurons, or empathy neurons. (Laughter)

 

 

06:00

And this is not in some abstract metaphorical sense. All that’s separating you from him, from the other person, is your skin. Remove the skin; you experience that person’s touch in your mind. You’ve dissolved the barrier between you and other human beings. And this, of course, is the basis of much of Eastern philosophy, and that is there is no real independent self, aloof from other human beings, inspecting the world, inspecting other people. You are, in fact, connected not just via Facebook and Internet; you’re actually quite literally connected by your neurons. And there is whole chains of neurons around this room, talking to each other. And there is no real distinctiveness of your consciousness from somebody else’s consciousness.

 

 

06:36

And this is not mumbo-jumbo philosophy. It emerges from our understanding of basic neuroscience. So, you have a patient with a phantom limb. If the arm has been removed and you have a phantom, and you watch somebody else being touched, you feel it in your phantom. Now the astonishing thing is, if you have pain in your phantom limb, you squeeze the other person’s hand, massage the other person’s hand, that relieves the pain in your phantom hand, almost as though the neuron were obtaining relief from merely watching somebody else being massaged.

 

 

07:03

So, here you have my last slide. For the longest time people have regarded science and humanities as being distinct. C.P. Snow spoke of the two cultures: science on the one hand, humanities on the other; never the twain shall meet. So, I’m saying the mirror neuron system underlies the interface allowing you to rethink about issues like consciousness, representation of self, what separates you from other human beings, what allows you to empathize with other human beings, and also even things like the emergence of culture and civilization, which is unique to human beings. Thank you.

(Applause)

Aujourd’hui, je voudrais vous parler du cerveau humain, qui est ce sur quoi nous faisons des recherches à l’Université de Californie. Réfléchissez au problème l’espace d’un instant. Voici un morceau de chair, d’environ 1,5kg, que vous pouvez tenir dans la paume de votre main. Mais qui peut appréhender l’immensité de l’espace interstellaire. Il peut apprécier la notion d’infini, poser des questions sur la signification de sa propre existence, et la nature de Dieu.

00:35

Et c’est véritablement la chose la plus étonnante au monde. Le plus grand mystère pour l’Homme : Comment cela est-il arrivé? Comme vous le savez, le cerveau est composé de neurones. Ici, nous voyons des neurones. Il y a 100 milliards de neurones dans un cerveau adulte. Et chaque neurone établit entre 1.000 et 10.000 connexions avec d’autres neurones dans le cerveau. Et sur cette base, on a calculé que le nombre de permutations et de combinaisons d’activité cérébrale excède le nombre de particules élémentaires dans l’univers.

 

01:02

Donc, par où commencer l’étude du cerveau? Une approche est d’observer les personnes atteintes de lésions dans différentes parties du cerveau, et d’étudier les changements dans leur comportement. C’est de ceci dont j’ai parlé lors du TED précédent. Aujourd’hui, je vais vous parler d’une approche différente qui est de placer des électrodes dans différentes parties du cerveau, et d’enregistrer l’activité de cellules nerveuses individuelles dans le cerveau. Comme si l’on plaçait une cellule nerveuse sur table d’écoute.

 

01:23

Une découverte récente has été faite par une équipe de chercheurs italiens de Parme, dirigée par Giacomo Rizzolatti et ses collègues, ce sont un groupe de neurones appelés “neurones miroirs”, qui sont situés à l’avant du cerveau dans les lobes fronteaux. Il s’avère qu’il y a des neurones appelés “neurones de commande moteurs ordinaires” à l’avant du cerveau, qui ont été identifiés depuis plus de 50 ans. Ces neurones vont s’activer lorsqu’une personne accomplit une action spécifique. Par exemple, si je fais ceci et saisit d’une pomme, un neurone moteur à l’avant de mon cerveau va s’activer. Si j’étends le bras, et amène un objet vers moi, un autre neurone va s’activer, m’ordonnant d’amener cet objet. Ce sont les neurones de commande moteurs qui sont connus depuis longtemps.

 

 

02:00

Mais ce que Rizzolatti a découvert était qu’une partie de ces neurones, peut-être environ 20%, vont aussi s’activer quand j’observe quelqu’un d’autre effectuer cette même action. Voici un neurone qui s’active quand je saisis quelque chose, mais qui s’active également quand je regarde Joe saisir quelque chose. Cela est réellement renversant. Car c’est comme si ce neurone adoptait le point de vue d’une autre personne. C’est presque comme s’il réalisait une simulation de la réalité virtuelle de l’action d’une autre personne.

 

 

02:27

Maintenant, quelle est la signification de ces neurones miroirs? Pour commencer, elles doivent être impliquées dans les processus d’émulation et d’imitation Car imiter une action complexe demande au cerveau d’adopter le point de vue de l’autre personne. Donc, cela est important pour l’imitation et l’émulation. Pourquoi cela est-il important? Passons à l’étude de la diapositive suivante Donc, comment imitez-vous? Pourquoi la faculté d’imitation est-elle importante? Les neurones miroir et l’imitation, l’émulation.

 

 

02:51

Maintenant, observons la culture, le phénomène de la culture humaine. Si vous remontez entre 75.000 et 100.000 ans en arrière, observez l’évolution des humains, il apparait que quelque chose de très important apparût il y a environ 75.000 ans. Qu’il y eu l’émergence soudaine, et le développement rapide d’un nombre de compétences unique aux humains comme l’utilisation d’outils, la maitrise du feu, d’abris et bien sûr, du langage, et la capacité de comprendre ce qu’il y a dans la tête de l’autre et d’interpréter les comportements de cette personne. Tout cela est arrivé dans un temps relativement court.

 

 

03:20

Bien que la taille du cerveau humain ait atteint sa taille actuelle depuis presque 300.000 ou 400.000 ans, il y a 100.000 ans, tout ceci est arrivé très très vite. Et je pense que ce qui arriva fut l’émergence soudaine d’un système de neurones miroirs sophistiqué, qui nous a permis d’émuler et d’imiter les actions d’autres personnes. Et qu’ainsi lors d’une découverte soudaine accidentelle par un membre du groupe, comme l’usage du feu, ou d’un type particulier d’outil, au lieu de disparaître cette découverte s’est répandue rapidement horizontalement dans la population, ou s’est transmise verticalement entre les générations.

 

 

03:50

Cela a soudain rendu l’évolution Lamarckienne, au lieu de Darwinienne. L’évolution Darwinienne est lente ; elle prend des centaines de milliers d’années. Un ours polaire, pour se doter de sa fourrure, a mis des milliers de générations, peut-être 100.000 ans. Un être humain, un enfant, peut seulement regarder ses parents tuer un ours polaire le dépecer, se faire un manteau avec la fourrure, et apprendre en un coup. Ce que l’ours polaire a mis 100.000 ans à apprendre, il peut l’apprendre en 5 minutes, peut être 10 minutes. Une fois cette compétence acquise, elle se diffuse en proportion géométrique dans la population.

 

 

04:23

C’est le mécanisme de base. L’imitation de compétences complexes est ce que nous appelons culture et est à l’origine de toute civilisation. Il existe un autre type de neurones miroirs, qui est impliqué dans un processus assez différent. Ce sont des neurones miroirs, comme il existe des neurones pour les actes, il y a des neurones pour les contacts physiques. En d’autres termes, si quelqu’un me touche, touche ma main, les neurones du cortex somato-sensoriel dans la région sensorielle du cerveau, s’activent. Mais le même neurone, va dans certains cas également s’activer quand je regarde une autre personne être touchée. Donc, je ressens de l’empathie pour la personne touchée.

 

 

04:52

La plupart vont s’activer quand on me touche à différents endroits. Différents neurones pour différents endroits. Mais une partie va s’activer quand je regarde quelqu’un d’autre se faire toucher au même endroit. Donc, ici aussi, nous avons des neurones qui participent au processus d’empathie. Maintenant, une question apparait : si je regarde une personne se faire toucher, pourquoi je ne m’y perds pas en ressentant moi-même le contact simplement en regardent quelqu’un se faire toucher? Je veux dire, j’ai de l’empathie pour cette personne, mais je ne ressens pas littéralement le contact. C’est parce que vous avez des récepteurs dans la peau, des récepteurs du toucher et de la douleur, connectés à votre cerveau, qui disent “Pas d’inquiétude, tu n’es pas en train d’être touché. Ressens toute l’empathie que tu souhaites pour l’autre personne, mais ne ressens pas physiquement le contact autrement tu seras perdu et embrouillé.”

 

 

05:32

Donc, il y a un signal en retour qui bloque le signal du neurone miroir vous empêchant de ressentir consciemment ce contact. Mais si vous déconnectez votre bras, vous anesthésiez simplement mon bras, avec une injection dans mon bras, qui anesthésie le plexus brachial, pour insensibiliser mon bras, et il n’y a aucune sensation qui rentre, si maintenant je vous regarde en train de vous faire toucher, je vais littéralement le sentir dans ma main. En d’autres mots, vous avez aboli la barrière entre vous et les autres êtres humains. Pour cette raison, je les appelle les neurones Gandhi, ou neurones d’empathie. (Rires)

 

 

06:00

Et ce n’est un sens métaphorique abstrait, tout ce qui vous sépare de l’autre, est votre peau. Enlevez votre peau, et vous ressentirez le toucher de cette personne dans votre esprit. Vous avez aboli la barrière entre vous et les autres êtres humains. Et cela est la base de la plupart des philosophies orientales. Il n’y a pas de personnalités entièrement autonomes, déconnectée des autres être humais, inspectant le monde, inspectant les autres personnes. Vous êtes en fait, connectés, pas uniquement via Facebook et internet, vous êtes en réalité littéralement connectés par vos neurones. Et il y a une chaine entière de neurones dans cette pièce, qui parlent entre eux. Et il n’y a pas de réelle distinction entre votre conscience et celle d’autrui.

 

 

06:36

Et ceci n’est pas du charabia philosophique. C’est le résultat de notre compréhension de la neuroscience de base. Donc, si vous avez un patient avec un membre fantôme. Si son bras a été enlevé et que vous avez un fantôme, et que vous regardez quelqu’un d’autre se faire toucher, vous le ressentirez dans votre fantôme. Maintenant la chose surprenante est, si vous avez une douleur dans votre membre fantôme, vous serrez la main de quelqu’un d’autre, vous massez la main de cette autre personne, cela atténuera la douleur dans votre main fantôme, comme si les neurones étaient soulagés seulement en regardant quelqu’un d’autre se faire masser.

 

 

07:03

Voici la dernière page de ma présentation. Depuis toujours, les hommes ont considéré la science et les humanités comme distinctes. C.P. Snow parle de deux cultures : la science d’un côté, les humanités de l’autre ; bien campées sur leurs positions. Je pense que le système de neurones moteurs est une base à l’interface vous permettant de reconsidérer des concepts comme l’état de conscience, la perception de soi, ce qui vous sépare des autres êtres humains, ce qui vous permet de ressentir de l’empathie, et aussi d’autre chose comme l’apparition de la culture et de la civilisation qui est unique aux être humains.

Merci.

(Applaudissements)

Prou cafè

dijous, 17/01/2019

Màxim Serranos Soler | Luxemburg

 

Estimats fans del cafè, de l’esmorzar i de les meves cròniques de bar, ha arribat el moment: el darrer lliurament sobre bons llocs on esmorzar a Luxemburg (ciutat).

Read the rest of this entry »

Levelland, Texas (Reconstitution)

dimecres, 16/01/2019

The Levelland UFO Case occurred on November 2–3, 1957 in and around the small town of Levelland, Texas. Levelland, which in 1957 had a population of about 10,000, is located west of Lubbock on the flat prairie of the Texas panhandle. The case is considered by ufologists to be one of the most impressive in UFO history, mainly because of the large number of witnesses involved over a relatively short period of time.

The incident began late on the evening of November 2 when two immigrant farm workers, Pedro Saucedo and Joe Salaz, called the Levelland police department to report a UFO sighting. Saucedo told police officer A.J. Fowler, who was working the night desk at the police station, that they had been driving four miles west of Levelland when they saw a blue flash of light near the road. They claimed their truck’s engine died, and a rocket-shaped object rose up and approached the truck. According to Saucedo, “I jumped out of the truck and hit the dirt because I was afraid. I called to Joe but he didn’t get out. The thing passed directly over my truck with a great sound and rush of wind. It sounded like thunder and my truck rocked from the flash…I felt a lot of heat.” As the object moved away the truck’s engine restarted and worked normally. Believing the story to be a joke, Fowler ignored it. An hour later, motorist Jim Wheeler reported a “brilliantly lit, egg-shaped object, about 200 feet long” was sitting in the road, four miles east of Levelland, blocking his path. He claimed his vehicle died and as he got out of his car the object took off and its lights went out. As it moved away, Wheeler’s car restarted and worked normally.

Newspaper

At 10:55 pm a married couple driving northeast of Levelland reported that they saw a bright flash of light moving across the sky and their headlights and radio died for three seconds. Five minutes later Jose Alvarez claimed he met the strange object sitting on the road 11 miles north of Levelland, and his vehicle’s engine died until the object departed. At 12:05 am (November 3), a Texas Technological College (now Texas Tech University) student named Newell Wright was surprised when, driving 10 miles east of Levelland, his “car engine began to sputter, the ammeter on the dash jumped to discharge and then back to normal, and the motor started cutting out like it was out of gas…the car rolled to a stop; then the headlights dimmed and several seconds later went out.” When he got out to check on the problem, he saw a “100-foot-long” egg-shaped object sitting in the road. It took off, and his engine started running again. At 12:15 am Officer Fowler received another call, this time from a farmer named Frank Williams who claimed he had encountered a brightly glowing object sitting in the road, and “as his car approached it, its lights went out and its motor stopped.” The object flew away, and his car’s lights and motor started working again. Other callers were Ronald Martin at 12:45 am and James Long at 1:15 am, and they both reported seeing a brightly lit object sitting in the road in front of them, and they also claimed that their engines and headlights died until the object flew away.

Blue Book

By this time, several Levelland police officers were actively investigating the incident. Among them was Sheriff Weir Clem, who saw a brilliant red object moving across the sky at 1:30 am. At 1:45 am Levelland’s Fire Chief, Ray Jones, also saw the object and his vehicle’s lights and engine sputtered. The sightings apparently ended soon after this incident. During the night of November 2–3, the Levelland police department received a total of 15 phone calls concerning the strange object, and Officer Fowler noted that “everybody who called was very excited.”

Report on the Levelland Incident by KDFW Television’s Richard Ray:

Dallas News |

The Levelland sightings received national publicity, and were soon investigated by Project Blue Book. Started in 1947 as Project Sign, Project Blue Book was the official US Air Force research group assigned to investigate UFO reports. An Air Force sergeant was sent to Levelland, and spent seven hours in the city investigating the incident. After interviewing three of the eyewitnesses – Saucedo, Wheeler, and Wright – and after learning that thunderstorms were present in the area earlier in the day, the Air Force investigator concluded that a severe electrical storm – most probably ball lightning or St. Elmo’s fire – was the major cause for the sightings and reported auto failures. According to UFO historian Curtis Peebles, “the Air Force found only three persons who had witnessed the ‘blue light’…there was no uniform description of the object.” Additionally, Project Blue Book believed that “Saucedo’s account could not be relied upon – he had only a grade school education and had no concept of direction and was conflicting in his answers…in view of the stormy weather conditions, an electrical phenomenon such as ball lightning or St. Elmo’s fire seemed to be the most probable cause.” The engine failures mentioned by the eyewitnesses were blamed on “wet electrical circuits.” Dr. Donald H. Menzel, a professor of astronomy at Harvard University and a prominent UFO researcher of that era, agreed with the Air Force explanation: “members of civilian saucer groups complained that, since [the Air Force investigator] had spent only seven hours in the area, he had obviously not taken the problem seriously and could not have found the correct solution. Even seventy hours of labor, however, could not have produced a clearer picture…the evidence leads to an overwhelming probability: the fiery unknown at Levelland was ball lightning.” Dr. Menzel argued that “in Levelland on the night of November 2 conditions were ideal for the formation of ball lightning. For several days the area had been experiencing freak weather, and on the night in question had been visited by rain, thunderstorms and lightning.” Menzel admitted that “since ball lightning is short-lived and cannot be preserved as tangible evidence, its appearance on the night of November 2 can never be absolutely proved.” However, he also argued that “only the saucer proponents could have converted so trivial a series of events – a few stalled automobiles, balls of flame in the sky at the end of the thunderstorm – into a national mystery.”

However, not everyone agreed with the Air Force explanation. Critics of the Air Force explanation pointed out that the Air Force investigator did not interview nine of the fifteen witnesses, nor were they mentioned in Blue Book’s final report on the incident. In later years two prominent UFO researchers – Dr. James E. McDonald, a physicist at the University of Arizona, and Dr. J. Allen Hynek, an astronomer at Northwestern University and, at the time, a top scientific consultant to Project Blue Book, would also dispute the Air Force ball lightning/electrical storm explanation. Both men argued that there was no electrical storm in the area when the sightings occurred. Dr. Hynek wrote that “as the person responsible for the tracking of the new Soviet satellite Sputnik, I was on a virtual around-the-clock duty and was unable to give it any attention whatever. I am not proud today that I hastily concurred in [the Air Force’s] evaluation as “ball lightning” on the basis of information that an electrical storm had been in progress in the Levelland area at the time. This was shown not to be the case. Observers reported overcast and mist but no lightning.” Hynek also noted that “had I given it any thought whatsoever, I would soon have recognized the absence of any evidence that ball lightning can stop cars and put out headlights.” In 1999 UFO researcher Antonio Rullan published a detailed analysis of the Levelland sightings. After examining various weather records and the competing claims of the Air Force, Dr. McDonald, and others, he concluded that “there was no severe thunderstorm in Levelland during the time of the sightings…there could have been a few clouds with light rain in Levelland despite no rain being reported at the [nearby] Lubbock weather station.” Rullan also added that “conditions for scattered lightning, however, cannot be discounted…lightning conditions did exist” and that “data sheets from the US Weather Bureau show that thunder and lightning were observed in [nearby] Lubbock one hour after the sightings ended.”

To read Dr. J. Allen Hynek’s report on the Levelland case, click here.

In March 2002, Dallas-based television station KDFW aired a report about the Levelland UFO case. Reporter Richard Ray’s piece recounts how at least 15 people, including Sheriff Weir Clem, claimed to have seen the strange object. Ray spoke to Weir’s widow and friends, who believe that the lawman definitely saw something unusual. The story also detailed the investigation and controversial conclusion issued by the Air Force – that weather phenomena known as ball lightning was to blame.

 




The aim of this blog is to present to the public a ‘non-personal’ -and nonetheless suggestive, information that has already been released.

 

Witnesses of Levelland

dimecres, 16/01/2019

Though the police initially thought the reports were a hoax, they, too, saw the mysterious lights, as they investigated the situation.

One of several people who witnessed the UFO in Levelland, Texas in 1957, holding up a drawing of what he saw. (Credit: Carl Iwasaki/The LIFE Images Collection/Getty Images)

 One of several people who witnessed the UFO in Levelland, Texas in 1957, holding up a drawing of what he saw.

Levelland, Texas, 1957

dimecres, 16/01/2019

Footage of interviews about Levelland Texas UFO sighting. Witness describes UFO. Footage of Dr. Werhnher von Braun at symposium discussing expeditions into outer space, voyages to the moon.

“Autres dimensions”, Jacques Vallée

dimarts , 15/01/2019

La tonteria… Gabilondo…

dilluns, 14/01/2019

Hay que ser escaso… lo ve, lo comenta con otros testigos, se lo confirma su majestad, la mismisima Reina, i diu que no s’ho creu!

Muy escaso el Peñafiel, realmente escaso!

Per a demostrar científicament la seva escassesa algú li hauria de preguntar si realment creu en la cabra de la legión o si el que desfila davant la llotja reial és que realment ho somniem.




The purpose of this site is to present to the public interesting information that has been released

 

La tonteria… a 8TV [está bonico, escarneix]

diumenge, 13/01/2019

Ell, el amigo, en canvi, “hauria pogut salvar Lorca”, diu. Diu i escriu! Quina “jeta” el paio (i la paia).

Amb l’ajut d’Icona? Ja, ja, ja… “Que hace este trasto?”

Sincerament, sens dubte que hi ha gent que té al·lucinacions; altres, a base de belladona probablement, que dic probablement, amb tota seguretat, quasi que salven a Lorca… quan millor els convé, sense saber ni on l’han enterrat!

 

La tonteria… a Cuatro TV

diumenge, 13/01/2019

La tonteria… a TVE-2002

dissabte, 12/01/2019