Arxiu de la categoria ‘General’

Magic Quantum Physics

divendres, 15/02/2019

 

“I’m a physicist, but I’m also a swing dancer,” said Krister Shalm, a postdoctoral research fellow at the University of Waterloo’s Institute of Quantum Computing. He introduced himself and set off 15 minutes of fast-paced action explaining his work with quantum physics in increasingly accessible and unusual ways. He capped off his talk by bringing out a band for a global swing dance number.

Transcript:

I’m a physicist, but I’m also a swing dancer. I do a type of swing dancing called Lindy Hop and I’d like to tell you about something that happened to me a few months ago. My wife while we’re in Thailand, we met up with a group of Lindy Hoppers and we want our swing dancing.

It’s agree at time but i’ll never forget this one dance that I had see my partner she didn’t speak any English at all and I didn’t speak any Thai. And yet we had this incredible dance. This is one of the things are love most about swing dancing. This partnered connection the fact that I could go to you almost any city in the world, not know the language any a find someone that I could share an experience through dance with.

01:11

I feel that dance can transcend words and allow people to communicate and different ways, now when I’m not leave the hopping my day job is a physicist and as a physicist what we’re trying to do is learned what are the rules the govern the world around us. How does the world work, and we find incredible is you only need a few simple fundamental principles explain most of the things that we ever experience. Take for example gravity, gravity is the force that causes and apple to fall to the ground. It’s also the same force that keeps the earth in orbit around the sun. All of the physics all of the rules that govern the things that we’d normally experienced we call this classical physics, but if we were instead to take ourselves and shrink all the way down to the smallest things like Adam’s you’d find that the rules are completely different, this is the quantum world and this is what I study and in particular what I study is a type of partnered dance that happens at the quantum level.

02:29

In my lab regulars I take the smallest chunks of light we call them photons and I bring them together and I need to know when they become partners, I might do this become connected in a powerful way in fact it’s the strongest connection that physics allowance. And what’s incredible is they don’t have to be next to each other to remain partners I could take them to you opposite ends of the universe and no matter what it did to this one at this one they would still remain correlated.

03:04

Einstein he called this spooky action at a distance.

I’d prefer to call it partner dancing at a distance. So this idea of entanglement is really difficult to explain because we don’t have anything and our everyday experiences are ones that match it, I can’t say ten with is like this because they’re is no this that we experience sometimes it seems like magic, fortunately I have a magician backstage who specializes in using magic to explain complex ideas he’s gonna come out and do a trick that’s going to kill a straight just what I mean when I talk about surprising correlations so join me in welcoming to the stage magician extraordinaire Dan Trommater.

[applause]

03:57

Indeed the world argument quantum mechanics is so tiny and is so unlike our norden ordinary everyday experience that it does seem like magic and I understand there’s a couple folks who’ve agreed to come up and help me actually do a piece of magic illustrate this would be charming as I shuffle the cards they adhere very tightly catalog part classical physics they had no choice but in a moment of bring out a device that will allow us to transcend those laws.

04:30

Hello Don and Ivan thanks for helping now for the sake of yes indeed for the sake of time will just use about a half of the deck of cards uh… in order to demonstrate quantum entanglement at this point they exist firmly in the realm of classical physics I have a device that local our strength and a lot of classical physics and entered the realm apart the mechanics of it picked up krister slab at the institute for quantum computing ladies and gentlemen I present to you the quantum entanglement you get my honest about the world to love that have so hot fire refiners science at this point these cards are intent on so when I deal them into two piles one for each don and I dint even on separating them by a bit of a distance they still maintain entangled now guilty to be mixing your cards in a particular way out demonstrate how you do that you pick them up and give them one at a time as they come off the top into a small file these camps at some point you’ll decide to stop when you’ve done that you’ll turn everything in your hands over played onto the pile despite everything back up into your hand and you’ll do that again peeling them as they come eventually you’ll stop don’t turn over and septa does this make sense okay so please take your files given face uh… just as they come into a little time at some point of the slide the stop gap with everything in your hands set it down and continued fantastic you do that at three times now at this point their key to making a different decisions sometimes don’t feel in just a few cards Ivan human few more before eclipse this law and up producing a situation where in some of the card to face up some face down fantastic and yet if the laws of quantum mechanics apply they are still contain no kind of surprising correlation will take place let’s check the top card of each part top part of this bio the black cat a part of this car the red seven krister tells me this happens in the lab that sometimes you have to do a bit of a flip saw flip this pile up in the check now they’re both black tens.

07:20

This could be a coincidence so let’s check the next year the next top two cards black aces once they stopped once they found and yep they’re both red nines two black eights, two black queens two read tens two black sixes black fives [applause] red eights read fives black threes red Queens and those two red sevens and back this quantum entanglement.

Thank you very much, thank you very much, …

thank you Dan …

08:04

So what Dan did with these card tricks if you showed us that you can go the cards work independently shuffle they still remain correlated this gives you a flavor for what we do in the lab with entanglement when I intend to photons, they actually have correlations there even stronger then went down to it anti institute for quantum computing return to figure out ways to use these new rules a physics these quantum laws ideas like contentment developed the future generations of technology, for example take information security when you go on line into take your credit card over and you buy something you have to encrypt that information select unprotected at turns out in the future entanglement is going to play an important role with our type of communications that will carry out you can also use these new laws of physics to build a super fast computer we call it a quantum computer.

09:08

A quantum computer is so powerful but I’d like to actually give you an example of of a problem we can solve much faster than when a regular computer can take for example factoring factoring is something that many of us learning great school and then promptly forget so I’ll refresh your memories about how it works take the number fifteen it’s factors are 5 and 3 five times three is fifteen take twenty one it’s factors are seven and three seven times three is twenty one now if I were to give you a big number singer thousand digits long and I choose this correctly it would take all the computers in the world longer that the age of the universe and they still wouldn’t be of the factor appointed computer could do it in under a day this idea the speed up uh… it’s it’s exponential and just to help illustrate this idea of exponential speed-up I’d like to do a little demonstration with you. So I’m going to use this chessboard, and this bold and the nabs what we’re going to do is we’re going to play at the little game with this chessboard what’s going to happen is distrust for here has sixty-four squares and we’re going to be double the number of smarter dumber and then so we place on each square so in the first where I’m going to put and I’m gonna put two on the next one and then I’ll put for on the next one and we can continue this game I think you know put eight and then sixteen thirty two sixty four in seoul and if we wait here long enough, by the time I got to the sixty fourth square I would need to be bull of and ends the size of the birth just to put on that square wouldn’t we’re trying to build equal time computer what we’re doing is we’re just taking pairs of entangled particles but we take many different particles I mean tangle than and week choreography is very complex dance thus choreography what happens is every time we had a nude dance partner we bring another quantum particle in we actually the power of our computer it would be like adding of sixty-fifth square onto this transport and then now what you get is unique to bowls of and the numbers the size of the earth just a thought well that’s the power of exponential sp the computers better based on quantum mechanics but I have in my lab right now we’re we’re in this kind of region rate here this bottom corner of the chess board. We can do things like factor fifteen and twenty-one protection paper just recently out on someone doctrine twenty-one where we want to get is over to here because then we can start solving problems at our regular computer can’t and there’s going to be some advances in materials science breakthroughs that we have to carry on in order to achieve this but I believe this future is very bright for quantum technologies I think we’re actually at the beginning of a quantum revolution.

12:48

And so far I’ve been talking a lot about these ideas of quantum mechanics in how entanglement is like a partner dance, but at this time I’d actually like to dance for you. Now I need some help for this so I’d like to invite to the stage out one of my favorite bands of Roberta hunt and the gents as well as some lady hopping friends of mine we’re going to help me illustrator all of these ideas we’ve just talked about. Entanglement as a partner dance how you can use it to build an exponentially fast computer and so on and each dancer that you see is going to be a photon that will be entangle now of course we can actually use the answers to till the quantum computer my lab would be even more fun than it is but this I think dance is a very powerful way to illustrate these ideas and to communicate them but we ran into a problem you see entanglement is so big so powerful there’s no way that we just contain on the stage or even in this large venue here so we did is we were now regard almost five hundred dancers from thirty six cities around the world that have come together just to help illustrate this idea of quantum entanglement.

[music]

Quantum Consciousness

dimecres, 30/01/2019

 

STUART R. HAMEROFF, MD 

The nature of consciousness remains deeply mysterious and profoundly important, with existential, medical and spiritual implication. We know what it is like to be conscious – to have awareness, a conscious ‘mind’, but who, or what, are ‘we’ who know such things? How is the subjective nature of phenomenal experience – our ‘inner life’ – to be explained in scientific terms? What consciousness actually is, and how it comes about remain unknown. The general assumption in modern science and philosophy – the ‘standard model’ – is that consciousness emerges from complex computation among brain neurons, computation whose currency is seen as neuronal firings (‘spikes’) and synaptic transmissions, equated with binary ‘bits’ in digital computing. Consciousness is presumed to ‘emerge’ from complex neuronal computation, and to have arisen during biological evolution as an adaptation of living systems, extrinsic to the makeup of the universe. On the other hand, spiritual and contemplative traditions, and some scientists and philosophers consider consciousness to be intrinsic, ‘woven into the fabric of the universe’. In these views, conscious precursors and Platonic forms preceded biology, existing all along in the fine scale structure of reality.

My research involves a theory of consciousness which can bridge these two approaches, a theory developed over the past 20 years with eminent British physicist Sir Roger Penrose. Called ‘orchestrated objective reduction’ (‘Orch OR’), it suggests consciousness arises from quantum vibrations in protein polymers called microtubules inside the brain’s neurons, vibrations which interfere, ‘collapse’ and resonate across scale, control neuronal firings, generate consciousness, and connect ultimately to ‘deeper order’ ripples in spacetime geometry. Consciousness is more like music than computation.

Quantum biology

dimecres, 30/01/2019

by

Stuart Hameroff

La métrica de Alcubierre

dimarts , 29/01/2019

La métrica de Alcubierre es una solución para las ecuaciones del campo de Einstein en el marco de la Teoría General de la Relatividad, que describen la relación profunda que existe entre la materia-energía y la geometría del espacio-tiempo. La métrica de Alcubierre permite la construcción matemática de una nave interestelar más rápida que la luz.

  • Según Einstein, la presencia de materia, o energía concentrada, que acaba siendo lo mismo, curva el espacio. Es decir, en la vecindad de una gran masa, el espacio se arruga y los objetos que por él transitan, siguen trayectorias curvas. Esto es lo que ocurre en la Tierra: si lanzo un balón, poco a poco seguirá una curva, en este caso una parábola, hasta llegar al suelo. La Tierra impone la trayectoria curva al balón.
  • Alcubierre le da la vuelta al asunto. ¿Y si quiero mover el balón como yo quiera? Tendría que inventarme una “Tierra“, es decir, una distribución de masa, que impusiera una trayectoria y además a la velocidad que nos interese. La masa que curva el espacio, en vez de ser un dato  de entrada del problema, como en el caso de un planeta o una estrella, es algo que podemos diseñar.

Este es el planteamiento básico del motor de curvatura de Alcubierre, conocido también por su nombre en inglés warp drive. En las últimas aproximaciones al problema, lo que se plantea es distribuir en anillo cierta cantidad de materia de masa negativa que genera una burbuja de curvatura de espacio-tiempo alrededor de la nave. Esta burbuja de curvatura se diseña para que consiga velocidades superlumínicas. Esto se hace contrayendo el espacio por delante de la nave y expandiéndolo por detrás. Se suele explicar como ir “montado en una cinta transportadora hecha de espacio-tiempo“.

Sí, masa negativa; encontrar o producir suficiente materia con estas propiedades es un reto, y quizá una de las complicaciones más importantes para la construcción real  de una nave interestelar siguiendo las propuestas de Alcubierre. Pero de momento, la posibilidad está ahí.

 

 

Dr. Christopher Kerr

dimarts , 29/01/2019

Dr. Christopher Kerr share his research about end-of-life experiences, supported by some real interviews, with the hope that we would hear what he have heard from the dying. “Their words are compelling and relevant,” he said, and they might leave open the possibility that end-of-life experiences affirm rather than deny life.

Dr. Christopher W. Kerr is the Chief Medical Officer at The Center for Hospice and Palliative Care, where he has worked since 1999. His background in research has evolved from bench science towards the human experience of illness as witnessed from the bedside, specifically patients’ dreams and visions at the end of life. Although medically ignored, these near universal experiences often provide comfort and meaning as well as insight into the life led and the death anticipated.

Transcript

I read a recent survey, and the title was, “Survey on American Fears,” ¶

and what Americans fear most is public speaking and dying.

In other words, my TEDx talk.

(Laughter)

If that weren’t tough enough, tonight’s topic is illumination, and the question is really: can dying be illuminating?

What we know of dying is based on what we have observed as witnesses.

We have all seen grim, physiological decline and suffering, and we’ve all felt profound loss.

0:49 – 0:52

So, if there is light within the darkness of dying, it’s in the experience not in the observing.

So tonight, I’m going to share with you the words and experience of dying patients.

And my hope is that you hear what I have heard: the dying often describing their end of life

in ways that are actually life-affirming, and rich with meaning, love, and even grace.

1:13 – 1:16

Before I go any further, I need to give a few disclaimers.

If it looks like I cannot stand still and I’m pacing, it’s because it’s true.

(Laughter)

The second is that, aside from my mother, nobody has ever described me as particularly spiritual or for that matter, enlightened.

And trust me, this talk has nothing to do with the paranormal.

A much harder truth for me is that I have a deep aversion to the non-physical, spiritual aspects of dying

that goes back to my childhood.

On August 6, 1974, I was 12 years old, and I was standing over the bed of my dying father, who was 42.

1:54 – 1:55

As he lay in there, he reached out and started playing with my buttons on my shirt,

and he said we had to hurry; we had to catch a plane.

We were going to go up north and fish like we had before.

And that was the last time I saw him.

My point here is I didn’t choose this topic of dying;

I feel it has chosen or followed me throughout my life, personally and professionally.

Like my father, I became a doctor.

This may sound strange, but if you have an aversion to dying, medical schools are a pretty safe place to be.

2:26 – 2:31

They never mention dying, let alone the experiencing of it.

Medical training is learning how to defy death, and when you can’t defy it, you deny it, in whole or in part.

This approach to medicine worked for me when I was doing things like working in emergency rooms.

But in 1999, through a series of unusual events, I ended up at this place called hospice.

At hospice, the curative science has not only failed the patient but has abandoned the doctor

who is, eventually, compelled to be present.

And when I was present at the bedside of the dying,

I was confronted by what I had seen and tried so hard to forget from my childhood.

3:07 – 3:10

I saw dying patients reaching and calling out to mothers, and to fathers, and to children, many of whom hadn’t been seen for many years.

But what was remarkable was that so many of them looked at peace.

In April of 1999, I was in the room of a patient I was particularly fond of.

Her name was Mary.

She was nearing the end of her life, and her four children were also present.

3:33 – 3:37

One day, Mary starts cradling a baby that nobody can see.

She refers to him as Danny – a reference nobody understands.

The next day, Mary’s sister arrives from out of town, and explains that Danny was, actually Mary’s first child, who was stillborn.

The loss was so deep that Mary was unable to speak of it during her life.

3:55 – 3:59

Yet, while dying, this indescribable loss returns to her in some manner of tangible warmth

and tangible love.

Mary, like so many dying patients, had physical wounds that could not be cured, yet her spiritual wounds were [being] tended to.

4:12 – 4:16

A few weeks later, I went and saw a young man named Tom.

I came out to the nurse’s station, and I said, “I think Tom has more time if we just give him some IV antibiotics and some IV fluids.”

Without so much as looking up, a nurse named Nancy says, “Nope, he’s dying.”

4:27 – 4:28

I say, “Why?”

She says, “Because he’s seeing his deceased mother.”

I say, “I don’t remember that class from medical school!”

She says, “Son, you missed a lot of classes!”

Anyways…

(Laughter)

Tom ends up dying.

What Nancy knew that I did not know was that Tom’s end-of-life experiences had meaning.

They were significant, and not just to him, but to those of us entrusted with his care.

So, if I were to have any worth, I needed to understand, I needed to learn.

4:57 – 5:01

I learned that end-of-life experiences are the subjective experiences of the dying

and often refer to pre-death dreams and visions.

Such experiences have been reported throughout history and across cultures.

5:10 – 5:14

They are mentioned in the Bible, Plato’s “Republic”, Shakespeare.

In our culture, the richest and most thoughtful discussions have always come from the humanities and never medicine

but from poets, playwrights, and philosophers.

5:23 – 5:25

These observers have commented that end-of-life experiences are so frequent they are essentially intrinsic to the process of dying.

They’re characterized as real, intense, meaningful; provide comfort, insight, and in so doing, help alleviate the fear of dying.

5:43 – 5:45

So why does medicine has so little to say about something that’s so meaningful,

and actually, potentially therapeutic, not just for the patient but for the patient’s loved ones?

In part, it’s because end-of-life experiences can easily be dismissed as confusion.

And it’s true; many dying patients experience confusion as they go through the process.

6:03 – 6:04

However, in contrast to patients’ experience with end-of-life dreams and visions,

confused patients are detached.

They have disorganized thinking.

They’re unable to figure out their surroundings, and they are more often than not terribly agitated and anxious.

6:21 – 6:25

The distinction is best [understood]

by listening to a patient.

The patient you are about to see in this video – her name is Jeanne -

was nearing the end of her life; and she has since passed.

(Video starts)

6:34 – 6:36

Jeanne: I was lying in bed, and people were walking, very slowly, by me.

The right hand side, I didn’t know, but they were all very friendly, and they touched my arm

or my hand when they went by.

But the other side, were people that I knew.

My mom and dad were there, my uncle;

Everybody I knew that was dead was there.

And they passed and did the same thing.

I thought it was a good dream, but boy, I remember seeing every piece of their face.

I mean, I know that was my mom and dad, and uncle, and my brother-in-law.

I have seen my mother, recently, more.

Interviewer: How do you feel when you see her?

Jeanne: Oh…! Wonderful!

I can’t say that my mother and I got along all those years, but we made up for it, at the end.

(Video ends)

7:43 – 7:45

Christopher Kerr: Jeanne isn’t confused, and it would be dehumanizing her

to label her as such.

But she shows us so much more.

She shows us that dying is this paradox: she is physically declining, yet, emotionally and spiritually, she’s vivid; she’s alive, and she’s present.

7:59 – 8:03

End-of-life experiences are not only tied to our personal meanings

but they are tied to some of our greatest needs: the need to love, to be loved,

nurtured, forgiven.

End-of-life experiences also represent a rich inter-connectivity between body and soul, between the realities we know,

and those we don’t, between our past and our present.

But most importantly, end-of-life experiences represent continuity

between and across lives, both living and dead, so that mothers like Mary can hold their long-deceased children,

and children like Jeanne can be reunited and comforted by their long-deceased mothers.

8:44 – 8:46

So, again, the question: why are the words of the dying not worthier of our consideration?

I don’t have all of the answer, but it’s true we live in a time where seeing is believing,

and where data and evidence are requisites for both understanding and acceptance.

Unfortunately, when it comes to end-of-life experiences,

most of the reports were based on anecdotal reporting.

In other words, nobody had asked patients directly or attempted to quantify or measure.

So that’s what we’ve done, and to date, we have over 1,400 interviews with dying patients.

In our first study, we spoke with 66 patients every day, until their death, and gathered 450 interviews.

What we found was a vast majority, over 80%, reported at least one pre-death dream and vision,

described as more real than real, and distinct from normal dreaming.

The next question is: what were they dreaming of?

We found out that 72% dreamed of the deceased: family, relatives, or pets,

59% of this theme of going or preparing to go [somewhere],

29% of the living, and 28% of past meaningful experiences.

So the next question was this: did different dream content provide different levels of comfort?

10:04 – 10:08

Here’s comfort on a zero to five scale, with five being the highest.

And of all the dream types, seeing the deceased was associated with the greatest degree of comfort.

The next question was: were there changes over time in either the content or frequency of dreaming as patients approached death?

Essentially, the Nancy question; could you almost predict death based on changes of these variables?

Of course, again, Nancy’s right.

Frequency is on the y-axis, weeks before death are on the x-axis.

As patients approach death, they’ve a dramatic increase in the frequency of their dreaming.

10:41 – 10:44

They are dreaming, specifically, of the deceased,  which is associated with the greatest comfort.

So, the next question we wanted to ask in our next study

was what did these mean to the dreamer?

Were there common themes?

Were there common meanings?

The most common theme was that of a comforting presence.

Seeing the dead or seeing the living was overwhelmingly positive

provided a sense of reunion, and the feeling that one was not alone.

Maggie, for example, was in her 80s.

She had been harmed greatly by a childhood friend, later in life.

And before she dies, she dreams of this friend, who comes back to her and says,

“Sorry, you are a good person.

If you need help, just call my name.”

Kenny was 88 years old.

He lost his mother as a child.

And before he dies, he dreams he’s a child again.

He is in his mother’s kitchen, and he says, “I smell her perfume,” and hears her soothing voice say, “I love you!”

11:44 – 11:47

Sandy was raised by her sister Emily.

And before she passes, Emily returns to her in a dream and says,

“Remember what I taught you.”

Many patients reported seeing the presence of others, and they’re described as simply being there, watching.

Little is said, but much is understood.

This next video is Paul.

Paul has a terminal illness.

In fact, he dies three weeks after this video.

But he’s talking about his deceased wife.

 (Video starts)

12:13 – 12:15

Paul: I dream in color, most times.

And she always wears a beautiful light blue.

It could be a suit.

It could be a gown. It could be a dress.

But it’s always light blue.

A couple of times, she’s giving me the little beauty pageant wave.

And a couple of times, she, sort of, greets… always with a smile.

Only once or twice have I ever heard her voice.

She always lets me know that she’s fine.

I get that feeling after a dream like that.

(Video ends)

CK: As I said, 60% dreamed of this theme of travel.

Jimmy sees many deceased friends and relatives and says,

“I haven’t seen some of these people in years.

I know we are going somewhere, but I don’t know where.”

Others dreamed of the deceased just there, waiting for them.

Sarah says, “There were six dead family members in my room waiting for me.

It’s good to see them.”

Less frequently, people had distressing dreams.

These are often relived, past, traumatic events, such as war.

And here again is Paul.

 

(Video starts)

13:14 – 13:19

Paul: Another thing I’ve dreamed of quite often, not lately,

is I’m back in the service.

I’m at Fort Devens up in Massachusetts,

where they were forming this company we were going to oversee; a new company.

The guys are all young. They’re like…

I remember them! And I am old.

And I’m trying to tell them, “Guys! I’ve been here. I’ve done this.

I’m not going to do it again!”

And they’re arguing with me!

(Video ends)

(Laughter)

CK: I have the deep privilege of hearing many people’s life stories which tend to emerge or come to surface at the end of life.

Sometimes, I’m saddened by the amount of trauma and tragedy people have endured.

But more often, I’m inspired by the strength of the human spirit,

and its endless quest to heal what is harmed, and what is broken.

And this brings me to the story of Mack.

I met Mack in 2011.

When I walked into his room and started to talk to ask him what was wrong, he gave me three words, and he said,

“A war problem.”

His family explained that Mack never spoke about the war, but in the last few weeks, he was unable to close his eyes without reliving the horror.

14:30 – 14:34

He couldn’t sleep that’s why he was coming into our facility.

Mac went on to explain that he was a World War II vet.

He was very proud to be from Texas and serve on the USS Texas.

14:42 – 14:47

At the age of 17, he was involved in the invasion of Normandy, in June, 1944.

He was a gunner on a landing craft that went from the ship to the shore.

But his nightmares were about the return from the shore to the ship.

Because that’s when he was transporting the dead and the dying.

He called these nightmares terrifying and realistic.

15:04 – 15:08

He says, “There is nothing but death… dead soldiers all around me.”

A few days later, Mack was completely transformed.

He looked comfortable and at peace. He could sleep.

He said the horrifying dream had quieted, and in its place were two types of dreams.

15:23 – 15:26

There were comforting dreams and neutral dreams.

In the comforting dreams,

he gets to relive the day he got his discharge papers from the military.

In the neutral dream, a dead soldier comes up to him on a beach.

He doesn’t know who he is, and he says,

“Soon, they, your fellow soldiers, are going to come and get you.”

15:46 – 15:51

Mack was rescued by the dead soldiers he had tried so hard to save.

He had closure. He could close his eyes. He could rest.

He died peacefully, and he died with his dignity.

But just think about it.

The human spirit and that courageous 17-year-old boy fought for 67 years to be free, to be released from that enormous obligation, from that pain,

from that horrible injustice.

His end-of-life experiences didn’t deny his reality, didn’t deny him his war,

but it recast it in such a way that he was finally granted his hard-earned peace.

16:26 – 16:27

I want to end where I began:

my hope was that you’d hear what I have heard from the dying.

Their words are compelling and relevant.

And I hope they leave open the possibility that there is light within the darkness of dying.

Look back on your own life.

16:41 – 16:44

Think of your greatest loss, your greatest comfort, and your greatest wonder

- loss of someone you loved, the familiar, warm hug of a grandparent,

the birth of a child.

What if, at the end of your life, at some appointed hour, the lost return,

distant feelings become familiar,

and meaning is restored?

If any of that is true, then dying is illuminating.

Thank you.

(Applause)

Qué vemos cuando vemos…

diumenge, 27/01/2019

La conversación propuesta por Denise ayuda a reflexionar y a hacernos cargo de que somos partícipes de lo que percibimos.

La objetividad como constructo depende del mundo real abordado por los sujetos que piensan, construyen y quienes viven diferentes circunstancias. Lo que indica que abordar el mundo real, no la realidad, que es otro constructo, es producto  de una interrelación objeto-sujeto-circuntancias. o contexto en que se da el conocer.

TRANSCRIPCIÓN

Hay algunas preguntas que nos conmueven y que nos acompañan toda la vida.

Una de las mías es esta: ¿qué vemos cuando vemos?
Y también ¿qué ven los demás?

Y ¿cómo ponernos de acuerdo?
Y, por supuesto, ¿quién decide?
0:34 – 0:38
El tema de la percepción me apasionó siempre.
Tal vez esto fue uno de los comienzos.

Un momento en que yo le pedí permiso a mi papá para ir a un campamento.
Ya me estaba diciendo que sí y se enteró de que había carpas mixtas.
0:49 – 0:54
Un desastre. Él debe haber visto algo así.
No sé qué ven Uds. Yo veo una pareja en una situación íntima. ¿Uds. también?

Pero yo era una chica de 13 años y, como la mayoría de los chicos, veía delfines. ¿Uds. no ven los delfines?

Algunos sí, otros no. Así empiezan las peleas.

Pero también así empieza la maravilla.
1:17 – 1:21
La oportunidad de ver desde distintos puntos de vista.

De conocer el mundo de muchas maneras diferentes.
1:24 – 1:26
Porque siempre las hay.

Porque nuestra percepción y nuestro conocimiento, no es algo que se nos da naturalmente como un reflejo de lo que hay, aunque nos educaron en eso, sino como un encuentro con el mundo.

Y el contexto es fundamental para darnos cuentas de cómo percibimos.

Por eso les voy a invitar a compartir este otro experimento, de Adelson.
1:48 – 1:55
Este experimento tiene dos baldosas marcadas: en una dice A y en otra dice B.

Yo las veo muy distintas: muchísimo más clara la B que la A.

Uds. también, ¿no?
2:05 – 2:09
Bueno, las páginas de ilusiones ópticas, los libros técnicos al respecto, todos dicen que parecen distintas pero que son iguales.

Y para convencernos agregan un argumento visual que es el siguiente.(Video)
Vamos a ir cambiando el contexto. Fíjense lo que pasa.
2:26 – 2:31
Un poco más. Ya empieza a cambiar, ¿no?

Mmm. Ahora las veo iguales.

Pero ¿por qué me dice que parecían distintas pero son iguales?
2:48 – 2:52
Antes las veía distintas. Ahora las veo iguales.
 
(Fin del video)

Lo único que cambió es mi percepción.

Yo no tuve un acceso a una realidad aparte de la percepción.
3:00 – 3:02
Algunos dirán, bueno, el que hizo el experimento sabe qué pigmento usó, y usó el mismo.

Pero resulta que el pigmento no tiene un color en sí.

El color es algo que se forma en un ser que puede percibir, una persona o un animal, en un contexto donde hay una luz; de noche, todos los gatos son pardos.
3:22 – 3:26
Si nos encandilan, todos son blancos.

Sea el que fuere el pigmento que haya ahí.

Porque los pigmentos solos no producen nada.

Nuestra experiencia del mundo como seres perceptivos es muy compleja.
3:37 – 3:40
Además del contexto, de la experiencia, de la imaginación –como le pasó a mi papá–
de cómo nos entrenaron -–los médicos ven algunas cosas en las ecografías que no veo ni de casualidad;
3:49 – 3:54
en la primera ecografía, debo decirlo, lo único que pude darme cuenta fueron las costillas de mi hija, el resto no entendía nada, y ellos lo pueden percibir–

Y es que percibir es una actividad que depende mucho también de la historia.
4:07 – 4:10
Y de lo que esperamos ver.

Ahora los voy a invitar a hacer otro experimento donde el lugar crucial va a ser la atención.

Así que les pido, como las maestritas de escuela, por favor, presten atención.

Vamos a ver un video.
4:22 – 4:27
Hay dos equipos, uno con camiseta blanca y otro con camiseta negra.

Se están pasando la pelota entre sí.
4:28 – 4:36
Hay dos pelotas y Uds. tienen que contar los pases de pelota del equipo blanco.

Nada más que los pases de pelota del equipo blanco.

¿Están listos?

¡Ya!
(Video)

(Fin del video)
¿Cuántos?
30, guau.
 
Otra vez peleas. Pero yo los voy a invitar a algo divertido.
 Porque la diversidad tiene siempre una tensión.
5:11 – 5:16
Y en la tensión está la creatividad, la novedad y el conocimiento.
 
¿Vieron algo más? ¿Algo raro?

¿Algo que les llamó la atención?
 
Público: Sí.

Sí, por ahí atrás hay alguien que vio tal vez un animal grandote, del tamańo del gorila, o un oso.
5:35 – 5:41
Un bicho enorme que pasó, se quedó en el medio, bailó.

No lo vieron.

Vamos a verlo.
 
(Video)

Ahí entra, en el centro, mueve los brazos, baila, se queda un rato.
 
(Fin del video)

Yo lo adoro.
 
Y lo hice montones de veces. Y es muy gracioso.
6:10 – 6:13
A veces sale bien aunque uno vaya como un estúpido y diga:

¿Hicieron el experimento del gorila invisible?

Igual, cuando están contando los pases una gran mayoría, aproximadamente más del 50 % por lo menos, no lo ve.
6:27 – 6:31
Y más divertido todaví  una investigación Simons y Chabris que fueron los que crearon una versión de este experimento y preguntaron a la gente si creería que vería un gorila o no contando los pases.
 
Dijeron, claro que sí, el 75 % de la gente cree que deberíamos verlo.
6:50 – 6:54
Y, sin embargo, muchos no lo vimos.
 
Los investigadores dicen que esto se debe a un fallo que llaman ceguera atencional.
 
Es decir, que la atención nos deja ciegos.
7:07 – 7:13
A mí me sorprendió todavía más la interpretación que el experimento.

¿A alguien se le ocurrió alguna vez que una piedra es ciega porque no puede ver?

Nunca diríamos eso.

¿Por qué tendríamos que ver nosotros algo cuando estamos prestando atención a otra cosa?

La verdad es que en nuestra cultura llevamos ya siglos de sospechar de los sentidos.
 
Ya Aristóteles, Platón, sospechaban de ellos.
7:44 – 7:47
Y en la actualidad los neuro-científicos sospechan del cerebro y dicen que nos engaña.

Es muy común que cuando nuestras expectativas fallan, salgamos a buscar al culpable.

Los científicos no son ninguna clase de excepción a esta regla y salen como en las películas “cherchez la femme”, ¿no?

Como en el policial, hay que ir a buscar al culpable.
 
Rara vez se cuestionan si las expectativas eran adecuadas.
8:12 – 8:17
Si realmente nuestra visión nos muestra lo que hay.

O si lo que falla es la teoría de la visión.

A la percepción no le falla nada.
 
Nosotros hablamos, por ejemplo, de ilusiones ópticas.
8:28 – 8:34
¿Uds. vieron algún anteojo ilusionar? Sería rarísimo, ¿no?
 
Cuando dicen que el cerebro nos engaña,
¿a qué “yo” estaría engañando mi cerebro?
 
Y me pregunto también, el cerebro,
¿es un órgano que tiene intenciones propias, separadas, independientes?
 
Yo creo que no. Creo que hay otra forma de pensar esto.
8:50 – 8:53
Y esta otra forma tiene que ver con estos recorridos de mi vida que me llevaron de la bioquímica a la filosofía, de la filosofía a los temas de redes, del trabajo sobre la percepción a la epistemología
–que es la teoría del conocimiento–y allí me di cuenta de que desde muy antiguo hay una teoría que no es nada intuitiva como dicen los autores del gorila
–este es el culpable que eligieron ellos: la intuición que nos engaña–
sino que hemos sido educados en ella.
9:24 – 9:31
Esta teoría empezó a existir en el Renacimiento.

Antes del Renacimiento no había nadie a quien se le ocurriera ver para creer.

No era un argumento. No era algo que la gente se planteara.
9:43 – 9:47
Recién en el Renacimiento aparecen cosas como esa caja que Uds. ven que se llama cámara oscura y que permite formar una imagen interna del David que está allí.

Lo elegí porque es renacentista.Más tarde vino la fotografía, pero en el medio para que Uds. se den cuenta de la dificultad que tuvo nuestra cultura para aceptar esto, existió Galileo.

Seguro que en la escuela les contaron lo que le costó a Galileo que alguien mirara por el famoso telescopio.
10:17 – 10:20
Y un par de siglos después vino Leeuwenhoek a quien nadie le creía cuando miraba por el microscopio
y encontraba una cantidad enorme de microbios
en lo que se creía que era agua pura.

10:32 – 10:37
Así que, desde el siglo XVI-XVII hasta el siglo XIX, esto de ver para creer tuvo muchas dificultades.
10:41 – 10:44
Inclusive Compte, que fue uno de los fundadores del positivismo,
dijo que el microscopio era un aparato maquiavélico
y no se podía confiar en él.
 
Pero una vez que se aceptó, ya en el siglo XIX, cuando ya nadie más discutió, se olvidó que alguna vez nadie había creído en ello.
11:03 – 11:06
Y se convirtió en el cristal con el que miramos el mundo.
 
Hoy los investigadores están desarrollando nuevos experimentos que no encajan bien con la idea de que vemos la realidad.
 
Todos aceptan que no vemos la realidad.
11:18 – 11:22
Lo increíble es que siguen creyendo en la realidad.
 
Es decir, en una realidad externa, independiente, que nació precisamente en ese momento.
En esta idea de separación entre el que conoce y aquello que conoce.
11:35 – 11:40
En eso que hoy llamamos teoría de la objetividad.
La objetividad es precisamente eso.

Creer que el conocimiento es un reflejo en la mente, o en el cerebro, depende del gusto del consumidor, de una realidad externa e independiente.
11:54 – 11:57
Lo que nosotros estuvimos haciendo en los experimentos es darnos cuenta de que lo que percibimos no es un reflejo del mundo, sino que depende de nuestra actividad, de nuestra forma de ser afectados, de nuestra historia, de la gente con la que estamos trabajando.
12:14 – 12:18
El conocimiento no es objetivo, pero tampoco subjetivo.

Una de las dificultades enormes para dejar de pensar en la objetividad, o para cuestionarla siquiera, tiene que ver con que nuestra cultura solo concibe dos cosas: o es objetivo o es subjetivo.
12:32 – 12:34
Pero los que vieron al gorila ¿qué son?
¿Objetivos o subjetivos? ¿Y los otros?

¿A quién ponemos en cada grupo?
12:42 – 12:46
Cuando nosotros abandonamos este pensamiento dicotómico que solo admite dos opciones y entramos en el mundo de la interactividad tenemos otra posibilidad de comprender nuestra experiencia del mundo.
12:59 – 13:00
Este es uno de los aspectos, para mí, clave.

Si yo cuando era chica hubiera podido saber todo esto que la investigación me ha permitido conocer ahora, la pelea con mi papá por lo menos la hubiera tomado de otra manera.
13:13 – 13:15
Yo no creo que mi papá me permitió ir
–porque me permitió ir al final al campamento, pero no fue porque lo convencí con nada de la objetividad; hice huelga de hambre–

No son solamente ideas en nuestra mente.

Son formas de relación en el mundo.

Tienen importancia personal en nuestras parejas, con nuestros padres, con nuestros amigos.

Tienen una importancia política fundamental.
13:40 – 13:44
Quien habla desde la objetividad, está pidiendo obediencia.

¿Quién puede ser el vocero de la objetividad?

Cuando Galileo invitó a mirar a las estrellas, había muchos mundos nuevos por descubrir.
13:56 – 14:02
Él no pedía una nueva Inquisición, una nueva verdad.

Él solo quería lugar para un nuevo punto de vista, para ampliar la experiencia.
14:08 – 14:12
Pero esa experiencia después se hizo cada vez más chiquita y cuando el objetivismo se consolidó, se consolidó también la idea de un único punto de vista verdadero, de un acceso único a la realidad.

Y el periodismo es uno de los ámbitos donde más existe esta creencia.
14:28 – 14:31
Vamos a compartirla. (Video)

Nora de Cortińas: Ella se arrimó para empujarlo y él aprovechó y la agarró así haciéndose el bueno.

Yo estoy… ¿Digo lo que estaba haciendo?
14:48 – 14:54
Puteando al policía. Le estaba diciendo de todo.

Porque sabía que era una falsedad.
14:57 – 15:03
Marcelo Ranea: Ella está reclamándole al tipo no sé si que la deje pasar, o que le devuelva el hijo, no sé, le está reclamando algo, mal.
15:08 – 15:15
Y, en un momento dado, ella le golpea el pecho al policía.

En ese momento en que ella le pega, él creo que se da cuenta de que no tiene ninguna manera de frenarla, de que la única manera de pararla era o dándole un cachetazo, o abrazándola.

Cora Gamarnik: Es muy importante la foto de Jorge Sánchez, porque muestra justamente otro gesto.
15:35 – 15:38
Es la misma situación en otro gesto de mucha tensión, en donde la Madre está gritándole y el policía la mira con un gesto muy desagradable.

Y esa foto Jorge Sánchez la expuso en la muestra de periodismo gráfico de 1983 junto con esta.

Los fotógrafos, cuando mostraron las fotos, mostraron las dos juntas.
16:00 – 16:04
Se abre la exposición el primer día y, al segundo día, van a la exposición y la foto de Sánchez no está.

(Fin del video)
16:14 – 16:23
Elegí muy a propósito este documental de Canal Encuentro,

“Fotos. Retrato un país”, y en particular este que habla de la “Marcha por la vida”, y los invito a verlo porque es  fantástico, porque esta foto no es falsa.

No es una foto trucada.
16:36 – 16:41
Para la idea de ver para creer, tuvo mucha importancia también la Imprenta.

La idea de una copia fiel de un original.
16:46 – 16:49
Ahí empieza a formarse esta idea.

Pero en la era de la interactividad, creer que existen copias fieles
16:56 – 17:01
cuando seńoras de 80 parecen de 15, gracias al Photoshop
–y el Photoshop puede ser manejado por cualquiera de nosotros–
resulta bastante más difícil.

Y no es que yo crea que la objetividad era posible antes, o que había fidelidad antes
–no soy tan ingenua– pero creo  que es más fácil darse cuenta ahora.
17:18 – 17:21
Creo que nuestros modos de vida contemporáneos nos habilitan para incorporar más puntos de vista, para reconocer la diversidad, para disfrutar de ella.

Les cuento que en el ańo 1802, Pierre-Simón de Laplace le presentó a Napoleón su libro científico recién terminado.

Uno de los más importantes de la época.
17:40 – 17:42
Napoleón sabía bastante de ciencia.

Lo hojea, lo mira y dice: “Pero aquí no habla de Dios”.

Porque en esa época no se podía escribir un libro científico que no hablara de Dios.

Y Pierre-Simón de Laplace, tan tranquilo, le dijo:
17:56 – 18:01
“Me pareció una hipótesis prescindible”.

Esa anécdota me anima.
18:03 – 18:08
Espero que en algunos siglos sea posible por lo menos conversar tranquilamente si existe o no la objetividad.

Desde luego, mi planteo es que no, no hay tal.

Que lo que llamamos objetividad es apenas un foco estrecho del mundo.
18:20 – 18:25
Esa foto no es falsa. La otra, tampoco.

Pero ninguna foto puede capturar ninguna realidad.
18:28 – 18:32
Ninguna observación captura las realidades.

Lo que nos captura son las ideologías, como la objetividad.
18:35 – 18:40
Por eso cuando me preguntan si hablando mal, porque así lo toman, de la objetividad hay que renunciar a la ciencia les digo: “De ninguna manera”.

La ciencia es una empresa creativa humana maravillosa que he cultivado, en la que sigo trabajando, que disfruto, que valoro y respeto.
18:58 – 19:01
La ideología objetivista es otra cosa.

No es ciencia, es ideología.
19:04 – 19:09
Y es un sistema a través del cual nos invitan a aceptar pasivamente en vez de comprender activamente.
19:13 – 19:17
Tal vez de lo que se trata en estos tiempos de interactividad, es de abrir nuestra experiencia a un mundo donde quepan muchas experiencias distintas.

Soltar amarras, emprender un viaje creativo que reconozca la diversidad en todas sus formas y en la legitimidad de los modos de conocer y trabaje para ver cómo convivimos en la diversidad sin aceptar que hay ningún punto de vista privilegiado.
 
Tal vez se trate de seguir el camino al que nos invitó Proust cuando decía que el acto real de conocimiento no consiste en encontrar nuevas tierras sino en ver con nuevos ojos.

Esa es mi invitación.

(Aplausos)

 

Objectiveness

dissabte, 26/01/2019

 

Objectiveness is continuously graded

The definition of subjectiveness and objectiveness seems to be more ambiguous than intuitively believed. When you walk in a park, for example, and count the number of blue birds flying in the park, the number of the birds can be regarded as a kind of data and the data appears to be objective. But, it may become ‘less’ objective if, when you counted the birds, no one was walking around and no one observed the birds. It may become ‘far less’ objective if you never saw the birds again in the park in the following days and years. On the contrary, it may become ‘more’ objective if many people saw the birds with you at that 8 time and you and others repeatedly observed them many times in the following days as well. In more details, the data appears to be ‘more’ objective if you counted the birds with 20 individuals than you did as one individual. As well, the data appears to be ‘more’ objective if you saw and counted the birds repeatedly for 20 consecutive days than you did it for only one additional day. Next, let’s think more realistic and scientific situation.Resultado de imagen de Daisuke H. Tanaka and Tsutomu Tanabe

The data obtained in scientific studies can be regarded sufficiently objective and reliable to be published in scientific journals. However, all data published in scientific journals may not necessarily be objective and reliable homogeneously. In some experiments, for example, multiple researchers performed the same experiments repeatedly and other researchers analyzed the data in a blinded manner, while, in some other experiments, only one researcher performed all the experiments and analyzed the data by himself/herself. One may argue that results obtained in the former cases are more objective and reliable compared to those obtained in the latter case since, in the latter case, some subjective aspects of the researcher who performed all the experiments and the analyses might be included in the resultant data. Taken together, it appears to be true that objectiveness of a certain issue is not always black and white in nature, but there are some degrees of objectiveness for any issues. That is, some can represent ‘low’ objectiveness and the others can represent ‘high’ objectiveness. The terms ‘subjective’ and ‘objective’ appears to be located in antipole of the same axis and most subjects appear to be located in between and represent a certain degree of objectiveness.

Although the degree of objectiveness of a certain issue seems to be vaguely judged by relevant human community, it is possible that various factors would affect the judgment of the degree of objectiveness of each issue.

——-
Daisuke H. Tanaka and Tsutomu Tanabe, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo

Conscious Agents

dissabte, 26/01/2019

Donald Hoffman, Ph.D.Cognitive Scientist and Author, Department of CognitiveSciences, U.C. Irvine Donald Hoffman is a cognitive scientist and author of more than 90 scientific papers and three books, including Visual Intelligence: How We Create What We See (W.W. Norton, 2000). He received his BA from UCLA in Quantitative Psychology and his Ph.D. from MIT in Computational Psychology. He joined the faculty of UC Irvine in 1983, where he is now a full professor in the departments of cognitive science, computer science and philosophy. He received a Distinguished Scientific Award of the American Psychological Association for early career research into visual perception, and the Troland Research Award of the US National Academy of Sciences for his research on the relationship of consciousness and the physical world.

Scientific investigations of consciousness that seek its biological basis typically assume that objects in space-time —such as neurons— exist even if unperceived, and have causal powers.

Using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms that study perceptual evolution, and find that it is almost surely false. Our perceptions of space-time and objects are a species-specific adaptation, not an insight into objective reality.

The theory of “conscious agents”—that takes consciousness to be fundamental, rather than derivative from objects in space-time. I use the theory of conscious agents to solve the combination problem of consciousness, both for the combination of subjects and of experiences. I show that entanglement follows as a consequence of the combination of conscious subjects. I then discuss the relationship of these findings to the account of entanglement given by quantum-Bayesian interpretations of quantum theory.

Javier Tirapu Ustárroz (2/2)

divendres, 25/01/2019

Javier Tirapu Ustárroz (1/2)

divendres, 25/01/2019

 

Licenciado en Psicología por la Universidad del País Vasco, psicólogo clínico y autor de 6 libros relacionados con la Neuropsicología.