Entrades amb l'etiqueta ‘TEDx’

Don’t get what you want? | Jennice Vilhauer

dilluns, 20/05/2019

Jennice Vilhauer – Psychologist

This event took place on November 13, 2015 in Atlanta, Georgia.


Raise your hands if you’d like to win the lottery. Keep your hand raised, if in the past month, you actually bought a lottery ticket.

You don’t need a psychologist to tell you why you didn’t buy those tickets you didn’t expect to win. Given the odds of winning the lottery, that might seem like a reasonable conclusion. But what’s important to learn here is that you act based on what you expect, not what you want. What you want and what you expect are completely different.

An expectation is a belief about whether or not you’re going to get what you want. As a psychologist that studies how people create their futures, one of the things I have learned that having an expectation that differs from what you want isn’t just the reason you don’t buy lottery tickets. It’s the reason why there are lots of things that you want, but you can’t quite seem to attain them.

expectation + action = creation of your life experiences

Losing that last five to ten pounds, going for that dream job or relationship, it’s the reason why no matter how hard you try to create change, you often stay stuck. Because expectation + action = creation of your life experiences. Now it might surprise you to know that most people go about their daily life thinking that they are acting on what they want, when in reality, they are acting on their expectations.

I was working with a client of mine recently. I’m going to call her Amy. She was a gorgeous and successful woman, but she was also sort of shy, very self-deprecating, and she had a history of picking the wrong men. Amy had recently gotten out of a bad marriage and she worked on herself, so she was ready to meet someone new. And she decided she was going to give online dating a try.

But she was having one bad date after the next. The men didn’t look like their pictures, they would forget their wallets. Some of them didn’t show up at all. One day, Amy comes into my office, and she immediately bursts into tears. “I had the most awful date of my life.”

“Well how bad was he?”

“He was amazing,” she said, “Absolutely everything I had been looking for.” She said, “I completely blew it. I was so certain this was going to be another bad date and a waste of my time, I told him to meet me for coffee after my yoga class. Didn’t have time to shower, just showed up in my gym clothes, hot and sweaty, no make-up. And there he was, Mr. Immaculately Groomed, tall and handsome, the perfect smile.”

She said, “I was so mortified, and self-conscious, I couldn’t even make eye contact. I just sat there, staring at the ground laughing nervously, until finally I told him I had to put more money in my parking meter, and then I left, without even saying goodbye.”

Amy acted on what she expected, another bad date, not what she wanted, which was to meet that great guy. I wish I could say this kind of behavior was uncommon. But having been in practice for more than 12 years, one of the things I hear most often is “I want to change my life, but I don’t really believe that I can.”

I’ve seen people give up on their marriages, their health, their careers, give up on their entire lives, because they didn’t think they could get what they wanted, and so they weren’t willing to try.

There is probably something that you want in your life right now, but you’re not sure if you can attain it, and so you’re holding back. When you don’t act on what you want, you take yourself out of the game. Buying that lottery ticket doesn’t guarantee winning, but not buying it guarantees losing.

Now you might be wondering: why do we do this? Our brains work on the principle of anticipation; we constantly predict what we think is likely to happen before it ever occurs. If you’re walking in the park, and you hear a dog barking behind you, and then turn around to see big foot, you’re going to be very surprised, although it would make a really great selfie.

As soon as you start to anticipate any event, you begin to act and feel in ways that help you prepare for what you think is going to happen. If anyone has ever said to you, “We need to talk,” then you know exactly what I mean. I see the men nodding.

When you prepare for something that hasn’t even happened yet, you participate in creating the outcome. In other words, you create the self-fulfilling prophecy. Because Amy was acting anxious and ambivalent before her date, she acted on what she expected not on what she wanted, and so she got what she expected; another bad date.

One of the reasons that our expectations can keep us so stuck is we have an automatic tendency to use the past to predict the future. If you failed once, you’re likely to think you might fail again. When you think about the future, the same part of the brain gets activated as when you think of the past. However, just because you use the past to make predictions, doesn’t mean that your past is what’s holding you back.

What was holding Amy back wasn’t her past; it was that she didn’t believe her future could be better than the past. And without that belief, she wasn’t able to create something better, even though an opportunity had presented itself right in front of her.

If you’re aware of what your expectations are in a situation, then you have the ability to use your conscious mind to override the automatic thinking, and plan for how to create a different outcome. If Amy had planned for her date to go well, things might have turned out differently.

Our expectations about our ability to get what we want have a very profound impact on our emotional well-being. A large part of our brain is dedicated to anticipating rewards: rewards, to put it simply, are all the things you want that make life worth living. As J.R. Tolkien said, “A single dream is more powerful than a thousand realities.” When you expect to get a reward, you feel positive emotions like happiness and joy. But when you don’t think you’re going to get what you want, you feel sadness, disappointment, maybe even depression.

The larger the gap between what you expect and what you want, the more distressed you feel. So what do you do when what you want doesn’t match up with what you expect? There is only two ways you can feel good in this situation. You can give up wanting what you want, tell yourself it wasn’t really worth the effort, you didn’t really want it anyway. Or you can change your expectations to match up with what you want, so that you can take consistent action.

So how do you do that? I’m going to give you three simple steps that will help you begin to shift your expectations. What I want you to do right now though is imagine an upcoming future event: it can be a goal that you’re trying to achieve, a work presentation, an upcoming holiday event with your family. Got it?

What I want you to do for step number one is: Ask yourself, “How is what I’m expecting making me feel?” If you’re expecting something positive to happen, then you’re going to be feeling really good about it, and you can stop right there. No need to fix positive emotions.

But if you’re expecting something you don’t want, then you are going to be feeling a negative emotion like anxiety, fear, dread, overwhelmed. Those are all signs that you have some negative expectations about that situation.

Step number two: Ask yourself, “What would I like to have happened instead?” What this question identifies is what you really do want in a situation. What you want, is oftentimes the very thing that you are not expecting. Remember, you want to win the lottery, but you don’t expect to.

Step number three: Ask yourself, “What do I need to do to make what I want happen?” When you have a negative expectation about a future event, it’s because you’re focused on all the things that could go wrong, why it’s not going to work out for you. You’re not generating thoughts and ideas about how to make it go right.

When you see a plan laid out in front of you for how to get what you want, your assessment of the situation starts to change; you begin to see the possibility. This is where the shift happens. Every successful action that you take towards that plan starts to change your expectations.

So I realize some of you might be thinking: “I don’t expect this to work for me.” And to be perfectly honest, several years ago, I may not have expected a simple process like this to make a difference in people’s lives either. But I was working with a very depressed patient, I had been treating him for about six months. And we had done so much work together, but nothing we did seemed to make any difference.

One day I asked him, “Where is the light at the end of the tunnel?” He looked at me with one of the blankest stares I had ever seen. After that day, I started asking all my patients this question, and I was startled to realize that many of them looked at me in the exact same way. They didn’t dare to dream about how their lives could be different, because they didn’t believe it was possible.

So I started to change the focus of my work to almost exclusively helping my patients shift those expectations, so that they could find their light at the end of the tunnel. Five years of research shows changing your expectations can significantly improve your life. and I’ve witnessed some very awe-inspiring transformations. The patient I mentioned earlier? Within a year, had quit his dead-end job and started his own successful company.

When you’re motivated by what you want, change is possible. In the words of Henry Ford, “Whether you think you can or think you can’t, you are right.” Your past isn’t what defines who you are or where you are going. It’s your expectations of the future that limit you most.

Now, here’s the good news: You can choose. You can choose to take action based on what you want. And when you do that, you give yourself the opportunity to step out of the past, and create the life that you truly want to live.

Thank you.




Dorothée Loorbach | about money & value

diumenge, 19/05/2019

In this talk, Dorothée Loorbach unmasks our relation to money and reveals her personal life-changing learnings from her six months project of becoming financially carefree again.

Dorothée Loorbach – TEDx Talk


I used to be successful according to society. I had left a well-paid job in marketing to become an entrepreneur. And very soon I could buy anything I wanted. Not anything in the world; anything I wanted which was a lot still.


My impulse purchases included a brand new car and a house. My entire life was just about fun and I can say I created some amazing memories. But it was just fun. I wanted more. I wanted joy. I wanted to do something that would last, something that mattered.

So I started working with students, and this was fantastic. For the first time in my life, people would come up to me and say “Thank you. You’ve changed my life.” And that was so valuable to me that I would do it for just a little bit of money. If they wouldn’t pay me enough, I would even do it for free a lot until I reached the point where even a small financial setback could ruin me as an entrepreneur.

And of course, it did.


In the middle of summer of 2016 when all schools are closed and I wouldn’t have any income for another two months or so, I received five envelopes at the same time from the tax services, demanding that I pay for my glory days immediately. This cost me everything I had — all my savings, all the money that I had and all I had left in an instant was just a few coins that I found between the cushions of the sofa and in my coat pockets and in my car and €3.97 in the bank.

Two days later, my daughter would come back from staying with her father. She would come back on her birthday and I couldn’t afford to bake her a cake. What I wanted to do was just to crawl into bed and cry which I don’t like and just hide under the covers until it would all just go away, but I couldn’t. I didn’t have time because I only had 48 hours to prove to myself that I was better than this, that I was a good mother.


So what I did was the most terrifying and the most embarrassing thing I’ve ever done in my life. I decided to expose myself publicly as a failure. And I thought that the best place to start would be rock bottom. So I gave away my last bit of money and then I had absolutely nothing and then the only way was up.

I called it the Money Project. I published a video on Facebook stating that I had failed gloriously as an entrepreneur, that I was totally broke and that I was determined to change my situation, to learn anything I could about entrepreneurship and business money and enhance my financial intelligence. And that I was determined to become free of financial stress within six months, and to go from nothing to a fortune or at least discover what the secret to doing that was and to become a successful entrepreneur.


And I would write a book about it and this book I would sell right away for €10 a copy and that day I didn’t dare look at the responses on my timeline because this was quite scary. But that Thursday I sold 64 books and I had a fortune. Until this day I’ve never felt more rich in my entire life because this meant I could now bake a birthday cake and she could have a proper birthday which she did.

And then I read, I blogged, I blogged, I interviewed. I learned anything I could and I succeeded. Within six months I was free of financial stress and I could say that I was a successful entrepreneur. And all this time I had been thinking that this money project — what I called it — was about money of course and business. But deep down it was about something completely different: it was about value and about life and I will share with you what I learned about life.



Lesson number one: money is important. Quite a cliché but I was raised in a way to believe that money is not important. And I inherited this conviction somehow — I can’t blame anyone in particular but somehow there it planted a conviction in my head that people with money are not nice people. So when I had money I would spend it as soon as I could and then when I found my purpose working with students I just didn’t ask for it. I didn’t care. I just wanted to change the world which I had no impact on whatsoever with €3.97.

And I also learned that money doesn’t make you a bad person; it just makes you more of who you are. So if you’re a jerk with a lot of money you’re probably a jerk when you’re broke as well. And if I would have more money I would simply give more but if I have to worry about money every day all day I can’t even take care of myself and I have nothing to give.


Lesson number two: money equals time.

As soon as we start working, we start exchanging time for money which is a problem because we can always make more money but we can never make more time and I started to exchange my time for far too little money I could barely survive. And at the end of the month there was nothing ever left to invest in my future.

So I would have to spend all my time to make just a little bit of money and I would probably have to do that for the rest of my life because there was nothing left. And for the rest of my life I would have given away the one thing that means the very most to me which is time: time with my loved ones and time for myself.

So I decided that it was time that I value my time. I would spend it more consciously and when it comes to work, I would have to exchange it for more money so I could spend less time working and more time actually living.



Lesson number three: money equals value. It took me two years to discover that the Money Project is not about money; it’s about value. And I’ve always seen myself as a confident person but I didn’t value myself because the way you treat yourself is a reflection of the way you see yourself. And I’ve been treating myself like crap which I found it terrible example to set for my daughter.

So changing my rates was not enough. I had to change the way I see myself. I had to start seeing myself as a person of value and that was not easily done, it’s a process and I’m still working on it. So I still — on a regular basis I still have to remind myself it’s okay; you’re worth every penny. And even now I find it hard to say this out louder. I get a bit embarrassed so I’m still learning. I have to keep practicing.



Lesson number four: what people say doesn’t matter. “You’re a cheap whore, you’re a fraud, how can you do this to your child”, just a few of the comments that I received. The hateful ones were on my timeline on Facebook. But the quiet ones they hit safely in my inbox confessing only to me that they had screwed up too, that they too had found that purpose and wanted to change the world and worked really hard 80 hours a week just like me and barely surviving but no one could know. So they didn’t go public because they were too ashamed to be a failure.

But they were very glad that I went public and exposed myself as a failure because now they could learn from my mistakes.


And I was thankful that I could help them and I was also thankful for the haters whether it was the strangers on my timeline or even some of my own friends talking badly about me behind my back, because they taught me that nothing is ever personal, not really. What people say about you and what people think about you it comes from their view of the world; it’s from their opinions and their values and their experiences and maybe they’re having a bad day or they’re very insecure or unhappy. It has nothing to do with you and the way other people treat you is not a reflection of who you are, it’s a reflection of who they are.

So now when someone says something hurtful to me it still hurts but not as much, because I know it probably has nothing to do with me.



Lesson number five: what people say matters. What people say matters most when people is you, because a person with the most opinions about you, the person who talks to you the most is you and you tend to believe yourself right, so be kind.

A few days into the project I asked my daughter how do our money worries make you feel and she said we don’t have money worries, we just have less money than most people .And then I realized that until that moment I had been saying to myself on a regular basis you’re such a failure. And then I realized because of my daughter that that kind of thinking was not going to do my circumstances any good and that’s what they are – circumstances. They don’t define you; your response to them does. And my response was to be kind to myself, to say to myself you’ll be ok, you can do this and then whatever it took I would do it.



Lesson number six: it’s really simple. I learned so much about business and entrepreneurship and compounding investing, entrepreneurship, about scalability, our rates, sales, low-hanging fruit, runway, value propositions but to be honest everything I learned I could have learned from my grandmother. Because the essence is this: spend less; earn more; invest wisely; and most of all value yourself.

But simple is not always easy. Let me ask you a question: who makes more money today than you did at your very first job? That’s quite a lot of people okay, be ready.

There’s another question. Be honest; I promise I won’t tell anyone but be honest. Who’s still at the end of the month sometimes is out of money or a lot of times maybe yeah, that’s quite a lot. Huh! Okay you’re not alone and this is why it’s called Parkinson’s Law. Your expenses will always rise to match your income. This is why most people retire poor and why lottery winners tend to end up with less money a few years after they won than they had before.

And about a year after I started the money project, I was earning a lot of money. I was doing well but still I didn’t really have anything left at the end of the month. And I realized that when it comes to spending, I’m a 12 year old so I should treat myself accordingly. So now I hardly have any access to my money. As soon as money comes in most of it goes straight to accounts that I cannot touch and I will probably have to do this for the rest of my life and I don’t care, because if there’s one thing that I learned from this project is I can’t afford to be poor.



Lesson number eight: being broke sucks. It does. Two years ago, my entire life was urgent, everything was urgent. I had to be a full-time problem solver which is both exhausting and impossible; it’s a catch-22 because scarcity captures the mind. Research shows that when all you can think about and that was a case for me — when all you can think about how do I get food on the table tonight, how do I get money today, that takes up all of your thinking space, there’s no room left to solve anything for tomorrow or next week or to make a change next year; you’re stuck in the situation.

And my situation was that my brain felt like a ticking time bomb. I can still today hear the sound of the bills dropping on my doormat and it still freaks me out. And day and night I felt this blind panic. I couldn’t breathe. There was no way out. I was suffocating. So the first thing and the only thing that I could do was breathe… I freed my mind and I made a decision that I was going to be successful in the direction of my purpose. I found my focus. I stopped sabotaging myself and I became successful.



Lesson 9: Stay broke. Epictetus said a very long time ago, “Wealth consists not in having great possessions but in having few wants.” The paradox is that the more money you have, the more silence and no Wi-Fi become a luxury. It’s ridiculous how much money rich people — money-wise — rich people spend on going somewhere quiet.

When I had nothing all I could have thought was to go somewhere quiet to just sit still or read a book or go outside, go for a run, play with my child and in those moments I found my most profound moments of happiness. I learned that my daughter doesn’t need any money or expensive gifts or fancy trips. All she wants really is a few moments a day of my undivided attention. And all I really want is to be present in my own life.

So now that I have money I choose to live as if I’m broke and without the worries I can finally say money is not important.


Ervin Laszlo declaration at TEDx

dimecres, 24/04/2019

Prof. Dr. Ervin Laszlo is generally recognized as the founder of systems philosophy and general evolution theory. His work in recent years has centered on the formulation and development of the “Akasha Paradigm”, the new conception of cosmos, life and consciousness emerging at the forefront of the contemporary sciences. He serves as Editor of World Futures: The Journal of New Paradigm Research.  He published nearly 70 books translated into as many as 18 languages.



I am part of the world. The world is not outside of me, and I am not outside of the world. The world is in me, and I am in the world.

I am part of nature, and nature is part of me. I am what I am in my communication and communion with all living things. I am an irreducible and coherent whole with the web of life on the planet.

I am part of society, and society is part of me. I am what I am in my communication and communion with my fellow humans. I am an irreducible and coherent whole with the community of humans on the planet.

I am more than a skin-and-bone material organism: my body, and its cells and organs are manifestations of what is truly me: a self-sustaining, self-evolving dynamic system arising, persisting and evolving in interaction with everything around me.

I am one of the highest, most evolved manifestations of the drive toward coherence and wholeness in the universe. All systems drive toward coherence and wholeness in interaction with all other systems, and my essence is this cosmic drive. It is the same essence, the same spirit that is inherent in all the things that arise and evolve in nature, whether on this planet or elsewhere in the infinite reaches of space and time.

There are no absolute boundaries and divisions in this world, only transition points where one set of relations yields prevalence to another. In me, in this self-maintaining and self-evolving coherence- and wholeness-oriented system, the relations that integrate the cells and organs of my body are prevalent. Beyond my body other relations gain prevalence: those that drive toward coherence and wholeness in society and in nature.

The separate identity I attach to other humans and other things is but a convenient convention that facilitates my interaction with them. My family and my community are just as much “me” as the organs of my body. My body and mind, my family and my community, are interacting and interpenetrating, variously prevalent elements in the network of relations that encompasses all things in nature and the human world.

The whole gamut of concepts and ideas that separates my identity, or the identity of any person or community, from the identity of other persons and communities are manifestations of this convenient but arbitrary convention. There are only gradients distinguishing individuals from each other and from their environment and no real divisions and boundaries. There are no “others” in the world: We are all living systems and we are all part of each other

Attempting to maintain the system I know as “me” through ruthless competition with the system I know as “you” is a grave mistake: It could damage the integrity of the embracing whole that frames both your life and mine. I cannot preserve my own life and wholeness by damaging that whole, even if damaging a part of it seems to bring me short-term advantage. When I harm you, or anyone else around me, I harm myself.

Collaboration, not competition, is the royal road to the wholeness that hallmarks healthy systems in the world. Collaboration calls for empathy and solidarity, and ultimately for love. I do not and cannot love myself if I do not love you and others around me: We are part of the same whole and so are part of each other.

The idea of “self-defense,” even of “national defense,” needs to be rethought. Patriotism if it aims to eliminate adversaries by force, and heroism even in the well-meaning execution of that aim, are mistaken aspirations. A patriot and a hero who brandishes a sword or a gun is an enemy also to himself. Every weapon intended to hurt or kill is a danger to all. Comprehension, conciliation and forgiveness are not signs of weakness; they are signs of courage.

“The good” for me and for every person in the world is not the possession and accumulation of personal wealth. Wealth, in money or in any material resource, is but a means for maintaining myself in my environment. As exclusively mine, it commandeers part of the resources that all things need to share if they are to live and to thrive. Exclusive wealth is a threat to all people in the human community. And because I am a part of this community, in the final count it is a threat also to me, and to all who hold it.

Beyond the sacred whole we recognize as the world in its totality, only life and its development have what philosophers call intrinsic value; all other things have merely instrumental value: value insofar as they add to or enhance intrinsic value. Material things in the world, and the energies and substances they harbor or generate, have value only if and insofar they contribute to life and wellbeing in the web of life on this Earth.

The true measure of my accomplishment and excellence is my readiness to give. Not the amount of what I give is the measure of my accomplishment and excellence, but the relation between what I give, and what my family and I need to live and to thrive.

Every healthy person has pleasure in giving: It is a higher pleasure than having. I am healthy and whole when I value giving over having. A community that values giving over having is a community of healthy people, oriented toward thriving through empathy, solidarity, and love among its members. Sharing enhances the community of life, while possessing and accumulating creates demarcation, invites competition, and fuels envy. The share-society is the norm for all the communities of life on the planet; the have-society is typical only of modern-day humanity, and it is an aberration.

I recognize the aberration of modern-day humanity from the universal norm of coherence in the world, acknowledge my role in having perpetrated it, and pledge my commitment to restoring wholeness and coherence by becoming whole myself: whole in my thinking and acting – in my consciousness….

Gros scandale scientifique

dimecres, 3/04/2019

Karim Noui : Pourquoi nous ne savons rien de l’univers… et tant mieux !
Chercheur en Physique Théorique, Karim Noui est tombé dans les trous noirs dès sa plus tendre enfance et n’en est jamais vraiment ressorti. Après avoir voyagé, du Tarn aux États-Unis, il a posé ses valises en Touraine il y a bientôt quinze ans pour s’atteler à la question de l’énergie noire. C’est un domaine qu’il explore avec passion au sein de son équipe de recherche du Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique de l’Université de Tours. Il s’amuse à dénoncer ce qu’il appelle, avec humour, un scandale scientifique largement ignoré par les médias.



Ce soir je vais vous parler de l’un des plus gros scandales scientifique de ces 100 dernières années au moins

pour vous puissiez prendre la mesure de ce scandale je vais commencer par vous montrer trois photos

la première photo voici il s’agit d’un trou noir

le trou noir est l’un des objets astrophysiques les plus fascinants mais peut-être aussi les plus inquiétants des plus effrayants de l’univers

tout ce qui tombe dedans et piéger à jamais

la lumière elle même ne peut en sortir donc qui nous semblent noir obscur sont moins

leur existence a été prédite par la théorie d’Einstein en 1915 à peu près 100 ans

au début personne n’y croyait vraiment et aujourd’hui on sait qu’il en existe dans le centre de quasiment toutes les galaxies de l’univers

ceux qui à l’intérieur personne ne sait personne n’y a été voir -je vous déconseille d’aller faire un tour- et aucune théorie n’est aujourd’hui en mesure d’expliquer ce qui se passe à l’intérieur des trous noirs


la deuxième photo vous voyez cette photo là représentent un phénomène qui n’a rien à voir avec le précédent bon les esprits les plus éclairés auront vu des petites ressemblance mais cette fois ci il s’agit d’un morceau de matière noire

la matière noire on l’appelle ainsi parce que on sait pas ce que c’est on n’a pas trouvé d’autres nom on ne la sent pas on ne la voit pas,

ce qu’on sait ce qu’on pense savoir c’est qu’on en trouve dans quasiment toutes les galaxies

comment? en regardant la façon dont les galaxies tournent les galaxies aujourd’hui tourne tellement vite dans l’univers qu’elle devrait se disloquer

prenez un bol de soupe une assiette de soupe faite à tourner sur votre table encore plus vite vous allez vite imaginé que bon… vous aurez un truc qui ressemble à une galaxie pas trop mais la soupe va en quelque sorte se disloquait


c’est pareil on devrait observer la même chose sur les galaxies mais on voit qu’elle existe elles sont la

alors les physiciens ont supposé qu’il existe une forme de matière, la matière noire qui est la un peu pour coller les éléments de la galaxie grâce à l’interaction gravitationnelle et l’empêché de se disloquer

cette matière noire selon nos calculs aujourd’hui représenterait 25% du contenu de l’univers


troisième photo, la troisième photo vous êtes maintenant des grands experts d’astro et de cosmologie vous reconnaîtrez ici l’énergie noire

l’énergie noire on en trouve un peu partout dans l’univers ici dans un amas de galaxies et l’énergie noire tout comme son copain la matière noire on l’appelle ainsi parce que on sait pas ce que c’est on ne la voit pas on ne la sent pas

comment on pense savoir qu’il y a de l’énergie noire?

parce qu’il y a 20 ans on s’est aperçu que l’univers grossissais et de plus en plus vite


si l’univers est un ballon de baudruche imaginez que quelqu’un souffle dedans de plus en plus fort pour le faire grossir de plus en plus vite

dans cette image ce quelqu’un qu’elles sucent de l’énergie c’est précisément ça qu’on appelle l’énergie noire évidemment il a personne au bout de l’univers peut-être que oui mais moi je n’ai pas encore vu il ya personne qui pousse l’univers mais aujourd’hui on le voit grossir de plus en plus vite et donc on suppose qu’il existe une forme d’énergie qui va être énergie noire

selon nos calculs l’énergie noire forme 70 % du contenu de l’univers alors faisons un petit bilan: on arrive dans une situation où finalement le modèle d’univers c’est celui ci le petit carré dans là haut c’est ce que vous connaissez les galaxies les planètes à l’intérieur les étoiles il y a même les trous noirs comme est là parce qu’on sait à peu près ce qu’ils sont même si on sait pas trop ce qu à l’intérieur

tout le reste 25 % de matière noire 70% énergie noire pour arriver à une situation où 95% on sait pas ce que c’est


je sais pas si vous avez conscience des moyens de l’énergie que l’on met pour aller comprendre ce qui se passe dans l’univers les moyens c’est quoi si les dizaines de milliers de chercheurs qui bossent des centaines de milliers d’heures dans les labos dans les observatoires qui utilisent les outils des plus puissants les plus sophistiquées que l’homme n’a jamais construit: accélérateur de particules,

détecteurs d’ondés gravitationnelles des satellites qu’on envoie dans le ciel pour envoyer plein de télescopes à voir des images du ciel tout ça, tout ça pour arriver à la situation où la 95% de l’univers désolé on sait pas ce que c’est

quelle société qui accepterait ça qu’ils accepteraient autant de moyens pour ce résultat là

alors on va voir les chercheurs on leur demande mais c’est parce qu elle aille je sais pas c’est dur c’est loin l’univers tout ça on n’y arrive pas

c’est pas comme si on cherchait une aiguille dans une botte de foin là c’est la botte de foin qu’on cherche carrément



une fois qu’on a fait ce constat il faut essayer d’aller de l’avant

je suis physicien théoricien avec mes collègues et collaborateurs dispatcher un peu partout dans le monde on élabore des théories pour essayer de rendre compte de la nature et de l’existence de l’énergie noire

ce soir je suis pas peu fier de vous montrer le résultat est le fruit de nos dernières découvertes et je suis sûr que vous allez voir avec moi derrière cette équation les secrets de l’énergie noire et de la matière noire

cachez votre enthousiasme c’est vrai

mais c’est dingue, c’est dingue tout ce qu’on peut voir derrière cette équation là nous on y voit beaucoup de choses à mon avis une équation de ce type est pas loin d’être très proche d’un tableau de maître

Van Gogh la nuit étoilée si vous avez jamais vus ce tableau la je peux me risque à le décrire un arbre dans la pénombre second plan un village sous un ciel un petit peu à la façon Van Gogh un peu tourmentée des étoiles est un clair de lune si je commence à vous le décrire vous allez certainement visualiser le tableau éventuellement comprendre ce que Van Gogh a voulu dire à travers ce tableau là

mais si vous allez au musée et que vous voyez la nuit étoilée l’émotion ressentie sera sans commune mesure une équation c’est peut-être la même chose je vous montre une équation je peux essayer de la verbaliser de vous dire ce qu’il ya derrière ce qu’elle signifie si je suis assez bon vous allez peut-être percevoir deux ou trois trucs qui vont vous éclairer sur la nature de l’énergie noire

mais si vous lisez l’équation dans le langage mathématique si vous la visualiser en quelque sorte je vous garantis aussi que d’émotions et la satisfaction intellectuelle vous allez ressentir sera également sans commune mesure

à ce titre certaines équations de la physique donc vous avez entendu parler l’équation d’Einstein pour l’infiniment grand où l’équation de Schrödinger pour l’infiniment petit songes considérés comme de véritables chefs-d’oeuvre de la physique

alors mon équation par notre équation mes collègues avec je sais pas si elle a la beauté de l’équation d’Einstein franchement je le crois pas et honnêtement on n’est pas encore complètement convaincu que va nous éclairer sur l’énergie noire

alors alors on va peut-être évité de d’en rajouter un petit peu plus en plus sérieux au début quand j’ai présenté quand j’ai préparé ce toc je me suis pas d’équations, pas d’équations mais je travaille tous les jours avec et j’ai pas résisté à la tentation de vous montrer au moins celle ci je me suis dit aussi mais pourquoi leur parler d’énergie noire de matière noire

finalement la seule chose qu’on connais ce sont ces belles images que je démontre au début on n’a aucune certitude sur ce que son énergie et matière noire que des hypothèses que des doutes alors au fond peut-être qu’on paie c’est de prendre un petit peu de recul sur ces questions là et que la bonne question à poser c’est pourquoi est-ce qu’on n’y arrive pas malgré tout les moyens qu’on se donne et pourquoi ce n’est pas un scandale

bien le contraire alors pourquoi est-ce qu’on n’y arrive pas la réponse cette fois ci je peux vous la donner et limpide c’est juste parce que c’est difficile


c’est fichtrement difficile donc on n’y arrive pas mais ce n’est pas parce que c’est difficile et que la situation elle est absurde à priori qu’il faut se démotiver et abandonner la question bien au contraire et c’est là qu’on touche le thème de ce soir, l’utopie du physicien

l’utopie les physiciens c’est celle de croire qu’on se dote des outils qui vont nous permettre de répondre à toutes les questions qui nous entoure et franchement c’est une des raisons pour laquelle j’ai fait de la physique cette envie peut-être de comprendre un petit peu tout ce qui m’entoure mais en même temps on sait très bien que plus on connaîtra plus ce sera difficile de savoir plus parce qu’à la fin des questions qui restent ce sont toujours les questions les plus difficiles

et dans ce cas là il va falloir redoubler d’imagination il va falloir trouver les idées les plus farfelues certains diront les plus révolutionnaires pour d’autres construire des instruments encore plus fort encore plus sophistiquée encore plus puissant pour aller dénicher la solution quelque part entre l’infiniment grand et l’infiniment petit

alors ce problème de l’énergie noire et de la matière noire sont très belle histoire pour illustrer ce fait

il ya cent ans quand Einstein est arrivé avec sa théorie on pensait avoir sous la main les outils qui nous permettrait d’aller sonder tous les coins et tous les recoins de l’univers

et puis la paf arrive énergie noire et matière noire et là on sait plus l’outil dont on pensait pouvoir tout extraire ne marche plus très bien on n’arrive plus vraiment à lui faire dire ce qu’on ce qu’on voudrait lui faire dire


mais ce n’est pas grave parce que dans l’histoire de la physique on a eu plein de moments comme ceux-ci ou en pensez avoir des théories au 19e siècle par exemple qui permettrait de tout savoir sur tout le monde sur vous sur moi sur ce qu’on a été dans le passé est ce qu’on sera dans le futur mais tout et puis rester des petits détails par ci par là à comprendre et ces petits détails se sont avérées de véritable cataclysme toute la théorie s’est effondré on a reconstruit dessus et c’est ainsi que sont nés la mécanique quantique pour l’infiniment petit ainsi que la relativité générale pour l’infiniment grand

je ne sais pas si le problème de la de la matière noire ou de l’énergie noire vont aboutir à des révolutions aussi cataclysmique mais ce qui est sûr c’est qu’on va tout faire pour y arriver mais on sait aussi que on veut s’approcher d’une forme de vérité absolue

la vérité scientifique, la vérité de tous les jours certainement c’est un concept asymptotique, plus aussi approche plus il est difficile d’accéder vers elle

c’est un peu comme l’histoire le paradoxe d’Achille et la tortue

Achille, vous connaissez tous le personnage de la mythologie grecque, la tortue c’est la tortue, Achille part en retard dans sa course derrière la tortue il est confiant au bout de quelque pas il voit l’animal en ligne de mire se dit aucun problème

il avance il avance à chaque fois il reste une distance certes petit certes de plus en plus petit mais une distance qui est toujours là pour attraper la tortue

puis il avance plus les jambes sont lourdes le sol se dérobe comme du sable mouvant

l’histoire raconte cash il ne rattrapera jamais la tortue le physicien de ces le scientifique de ces il connaît très très bien le sentiment d’Achille derrière la tortue mais il continue il avance parce que ils rêvent de découvrir des nouveaux mondes

et au fond en physique en sciences en avance par petits pas quelquefois on fait des bonds de géant parfois on recule fait marche arrière peut-être pour prendre de l’élan d’autres fois on avance et puis là on se trouve face à un précipices vertigineux l’énergie noire peut être un problème incommensurable

paris n’est pas le droit de dépasser

dans ce cas la soit je saute sur le public soit on essaie de construire de nouvelles routes de nouveaux ponts qui vont nous permettre d’accéder de l’autre côté de la rive

souvent histoire racontant ses ponts qui ont été construits par un seul homme on retient on parle souvent de lui ce soir Einstein un chien n’a construit quasiman ses propres droits des nouvelles routes qui nous ont permis de sonder au sens propre comme au sens figuré tous les coins et recoins de l’univers on est parti très très loin avec la théorie d’Einstein

mais très souvent la construction d’un pont scientifique est une oeuvre collective chacun vient il dépose une brique ou quelqu’un d’autre un l’aide d’une brique était cassée qui ne marchait pas bien d’un autre va ajouter de ciment

et au final on arrive à des édifices qui sont formidables qui sont merveilleux alors peut-être que dans un 10, 20, 30 ou 100 ans l’un de vous dans un an sera là et expliquera comment il a réussi à construire un pont vers le vaccin contre le sida verts on a parlé ce soir le problème du réchauffement climatique vers une solution contre la pauvreté dans le monde vers la conquête de la planète Mars ou quelqu’un sera là et nous dira ce qu’est l’énergie noire

si aujourd’hui je suis je suis physicien je dois beaucoup à la curiosité que beaucoup de mes enseignants mon entourage ont nourri au plus profond de moi-même vouloir savoir et savoir est une source d’inspiration infinie mais ça ça ne suffit pas il faut aussi accepter ne pas savoir il faut accepter atteindre ses limites

mais cette forme d’ignorance ne doit pas être une source de frustration ou d’aigreur elle doit être une source de motivation ok on connaît 5% de l’univers mais il reste 95 % à explorer allons-y t’aide à mi-peine fusée à notre disposition on touche on s’envole vers l’énergie noire merci



The Impact of discovery of intelligent alien

dimarts , 5/03/2019

What you just witnessed was the opening scene from the movie contactfor the last century we’ve been generating a bubble

that’s been expanding out wardly at the speed of light

we call this the Earth’s radio bubble or radio sphere

it is the means for an alien civilization within a hundred light-years to tune in

to jam to our tunes or to get an idea of pop culture on earth

what might they think of us

would they be amused or offended by our movies music and musings about them

with Zayn Malik and Lady Gaga be the faces of the human race

in my talk I’m going to speculate as to what might happen

if and when we encounter alien life

that’s vastly superior in intelligence to us


contact might happen in two ways:

one the aliens might announce their existence through radio communication

or two they may stop by our skies in their spaceships

either way the event will have a profound impact on the psyche of human beings


this is what aliens have been depicted as in pop culture

ladies and gentlemen

let me assure you two arms two legs

fingers toes and noses Hollywood’s based its aliens on its directors

we need to expand our minds I because one thing’s for certain

television alien life will be nothing like anything we’ve ever imagined

and the last thing we want to do is greet them with a bewildered face

check out these bizarre and alien looking creatures

that exists right here on planet earth

these creatures call planet Earth home

just like us

they are carbon-based

just like us

they are made of DNA

just like us?

they breathe oxygen and need water to survive

just like us


now let’s consider creatures from a different planet altogether

they may not be carbon-based

they may not be made of DNA but of a different molecule altogether

they may not breathe oxygen and to them water may be poison

it’s nigh impossible to conceive of what such creatures would look like

let’s move on to consider the cultural political and theological implications of an encounter with alien life

as I’ve already established contact might happen in two ways

one the aliens may ring us up on the radio phone

or two they may drop by I’m going to be exclusively considering the more exciting option

an actual alien visitation many parallels can be drawn

between an alien force and the powerful Spanish Armada

when they arrived on the shores of South America guns blazing

with their massive ships germs and steel armory

if an alien force was to visit us

that would make their technology far superior to anything we have on earth

because in order to get here they would have to traverse the vast interstellar expenses

that separate us from other star system

politically the implications of an encounter with alien life

would be that our illusions of grandeur and self-importance would crumble

we would see ourselves for what we truly are

a young species on the shores of a vast ocean of knowledge

we would be forced to unite old alliances would become meaningless

the United Nations would take on new meaning

entirely new offices would have to be instituted at the governmental level

currently we have ministers of internal and external affairs

a new portfolio the ministry of cosmic affairs

we have to redefine what we mean

how would you negotiate with a being millions of years more advanced than you

culturally the impact would be profound

in the 17th century Galileo confirmed Copernicus of theory

conclusively proving that we orbit the Sun not the other way around

conclusively proving that we aren’t the center of the universe

the backlash to this idea is proof enough of how deeply it shook us up


even today many of our species hangs on to similarly narcissistic sentiments

about our place in the universe

how would our culture be affected by the arrival of a more dominant alien culture

we’re so concerned about immigration and the illusion of culture

what happened when our cities are flooded by citizens of another planet

what of passports and visas and immigration control

currently our music is heavily influenced by American pop culture

rap rock jazz blues hip, hip hop, soul, country

you name it America made it

what happens to this culture

when a more dominant cultures supersedes American influence

would reimburse it with the same wild abandon

teenagers in the 1950s embraced rock and roll

or would we shirk away in horror

like the parents of kids who listened to death metal

I imagine our reaction would be somewhere in between

perhaps we’d evolve some sort of alien human fusion funk

legally are thinking would be significantly impacted

by an encounter with alien life

we would have to re-evaluate what we mean by human rights

and legal personhood

currently rights aren’t just afforded to humans

corporations have entirely individual sets of Rights

and are recognized as individual bodies

a court in Argentina awarded certainly human rights to an orangutan

in the movie Avatar we see sentient beings like the Navi

who aren’t human but who here in this room would deny them human rights

we need to prepare ourselves to expand our notion of human

long as we’re on legal rights one of our patents and copyright

that regard so steel ously

our technology would be laughably primitive

in the face of alien innovation

scientifically and technologically we would have much to learn

while we change our toddlers diapers cosmic alien

toddlers could be doing the kinds of equations

Stephen Hawking has spent years mastering

what will this do to our ego as a species

one of our sense of self-worth

will we be able to cope with the realization that on a cosmic scale

we are but simpletons whose technology

is millions of years out of date

finally what impact will an alien encounter have

on our theological beliefs

all mainstream religions place humans at the centerpiece of creation

how would it impact our thinking if we realize that

we are but one species in a universe teeming with life

the possibility that there’s life out there is exciting

exhilarating and simply spine-tingling

but I’d like to leave you with an equally arresting thought

what if our universe is completely devoid of life

what if we are well and truly alone

but that’s a subject for another TED talk




Magic Quantum Physics

divendres, 15/02/2019


“I’m a physicist, but I’m also a swing dancer,” said Krister Shalm, a postdoctoral research fellow at the University of Waterloo’s Institute of Quantum Computing. He introduced himself and set off 15 minutes of fast-paced action explaining his work with quantum physics in increasingly accessible and unusual ways. He capped off his talk by bringing out a band for a global swing dance number.


I’m a physicist, but I’m also a swing dancer. I do a type of swing dancing called Lindy Hop and I’d like to tell you about something that happened to me a few months ago. My wife while we’re in Thailand, we met up with a group of Lindy Hoppers and we want our swing dancing.

It’s agree at time but i’ll never forget this one dance that I had see my partner she didn’t speak any English at all and I didn’t speak any Thai. And yet we had this incredible dance. This is one of the things are love most about swing dancing. This partnered connection the fact that I could go to you almost any city in the world, not know the language any a find someone that I could share an experience through dance with.


I feel that dance can transcend words and allow people to communicate and different ways, now when I’m not leave the hopping my day job is a physicist and as a physicist what we’re trying to do is learned what are the rules the govern the world around us. How does the world work, and we find incredible is you only need a few simple fundamental principles explain most of the things that we ever experience. Take for example gravity, gravity is the force that causes and apple to fall to the ground. It’s also the same force that keeps the earth in orbit around the sun. All of the physics all of the rules that govern the things that we’d normally experienced we call this classical physics, but if we were instead to take ourselves and shrink all the way down to the smallest things like Adam’s you’d find that the rules are completely different, this is the quantum world and this is what I study and in particular what I study is a type of partnered dance that happens at the quantum level.


In my lab regulars I take the smallest chunks of light we call them photons and I bring them together and I need to know when they become partners, I might do this become connected in a powerful way in fact it’s the strongest connection that physics allowance. And what’s incredible is they don’t have to be next to each other to remain partners I could take them to you opposite ends of the universe and no matter what it did to this one at this one they would still remain correlated.


Einstein he called this spooky action at a distance.

I’d prefer to call it partner dancing at a distance. So this idea of entanglement is really difficult to explain because we don’t have anything and our everyday experiences are ones that match it, I can’t say ten with is like this because they’re is no this that we experience sometimes it seems like magic, fortunately I have a magician backstage who specializes in using magic to explain complex ideas he’s gonna come out and do a trick that’s going to kill a straight just what I mean when I talk about surprising correlations so join me in welcoming to the stage magician extraordinaire Dan Trommater.



Indeed the world argument quantum mechanics is so tiny and is so unlike our norden ordinary everyday experience that it does seem like magic and I understand there’s a couple folks who’ve agreed to come up and help me actually do a piece of magic illustrate this would be charming as I shuffle the cards they adhere very tightly catalog part classical physics they had no choice but in a moment of bring out a device that will allow us to transcend those laws.


Hello Don and Ivan thanks for helping now for the sake of yes indeed for the sake of time will just use about a half of the deck of cards uh… in order to demonstrate quantum entanglement at this point they exist firmly in the realm of classical physics I have a device that local our strength and a lot of classical physics and entered the realm apart the mechanics of it picked up krister slab at the institute for quantum computing ladies and gentlemen I present to you the quantum entanglement you get my honest about the world to love that have so hot fire refiners science at this point these cards are intent on so when I deal them into two piles one for each don and I dint even on separating them by a bit of a distance they still maintain entangled now guilty to be mixing your cards in a particular way out demonstrate how you do that you pick them up and give them one at a time as they come off the top into a small file these camps at some point you’ll decide to stop when you’ve done that you’ll turn everything in your hands over played onto the pile despite everything back up into your hand and you’ll do that again peeling them as they come eventually you’ll stop don’t turn over and septa does this make sense okay so please take your files given face uh… just as they come into a little time at some point of the slide the stop gap with everything in your hands set it down and continued fantastic you do that at three times now at this point their key to making a different decisions sometimes don’t feel in just a few cards Ivan human few more before eclipse this law and up producing a situation where in some of the card to face up some face down fantastic and yet if the laws of quantum mechanics apply they are still contain no kind of surprising correlation will take place let’s check the top card of each part top part of this bio the black cat a part of this car the red seven krister tells me this happens in the lab that sometimes you have to do a bit of a flip saw flip this pile up in the check now they’re both black tens.


This could be a coincidence so let’s check the next year the next top two cards black aces once they stopped once they found and yep they’re both red nines two black eights, two black queens two read tens two black sixes black fives [applause] red eights read fives black threes red Queens and those two red sevens and back this quantum entanglement.

Thank you very much, thank you very much, …

thank you Dan …


So what Dan did with these card tricks if you showed us that you can go the cards work independently shuffle they still remain correlated this gives you a flavor for what we do in the lab with entanglement when I intend to photons, they actually have correlations there even stronger then went down to it anti institute for quantum computing return to figure out ways to use these new rules a physics these quantum laws ideas like contentment developed the future generations of technology, for example take information security when you go on line into take your credit card over and you buy something you have to encrypt that information select unprotected at turns out in the future entanglement is going to play an important role with our type of communications that will carry out you can also use these new laws of physics to build a super fast computer we call it a quantum computer.


A quantum computer is so powerful but I’d like to actually give you an example of of a problem we can solve much faster than when a regular computer can take for example factoring factoring is something that many of us learning great school and then promptly forget so I’ll refresh your memories about how it works take the number fifteen it’s factors are 5 and 3 five times three is fifteen take twenty one it’s factors are seven and three seven times three is twenty one now if I were to give you a big number singer thousand digits long and I choose this correctly it would take all the computers in the world longer that the age of the universe and they still wouldn’t be of the factor appointed computer could do it in under a day this idea the speed up uh… it’s it’s exponential and just to help illustrate this idea of exponential speed-up I’d like to do a little demonstration with you. So I’m going to use this chessboard, and this bold and the nabs what we’re going to do is we’re going to play at the little game with this chessboard what’s going to happen is distrust for here has sixty-four squares and we’re going to be double the number of smarter dumber and then so we place on each square so in the first where I’m going to put and I’m gonna put two on the next one and then I’ll put for on the next one and we can continue this game I think you know put eight and then sixteen thirty two sixty four in seoul and if we wait here long enough, by the time I got to the sixty fourth square I would need to be bull of and ends the size of the birth just to put on that square wouldn’t we’re trying to build equal time computer what we’re doing is we’re just taking pairs of entangled particles but we take many different particles I mean tangle than and week choreography is very complex dance thus choreography what happens is every time we had a nude dance partner we bring another quantum particle in we actually the power of our computer it would be like adding of sixty-fifth square onto this transport and then now what you get is unique to bowls of and the numbers the size of the earth just a thought well that’s the power of exponential sp the computers better based on quantum mechanics but I have in my lab right now we’re we’re in this kind of region rate here this bottom corner of the chess board. We can do things like factor fifteen and twenty-one protection paper just recently out on someone doctrine twenty-one where we want to get is over to here because then we can start solving problems at our regular computer can’t and there’s going to be some advances in materials science breakthroughs that we have to carry on in order to achieve this but I believe this future is very bright for quantum technologies I think we’re actually at the beginning of a quantum revolution.


And so far I’ve been talking a lot about these ideas of quantum mechanics in how entanglement is like a partner dance, but at this time I’d actually like to dance for you. Now I need some help for this so I’d like to invite to the stage out one of my favorite bands of Roberta hunt and the gents as well as some lady hopping friends of mine we’re going to help me illustrator all of these ideas we’ve just talked about. Entanglement as a partner dance how you can use it to build an exponentially fast computer and so on and each dancer that you see is going to be a photon that will be entangle now of course we can actually use the answers to till the quantum computer my lab would be even more fun than it is but this I think dance is a very powerful way to illustrate these ideas and to communicate them but we ran into a problem you see entanglement is so big so powerful there’s no way that we just contain on the stage or even in this large venue here so we did is we were now regard almost five hundred dancers from thirty six cities around the world that have come together just to help illustrate this idea of quantum entanglement.


Quantum biology

dimecres, 30/01/2019


Stuart Hameroff

Qué vemos cuando vemos…

diumenge, 27/01/2019

La conversación propuesta por Denise ayuda a reflexionar y a hacernos cargo de que somos partícipes de lo que percibimos.

La objetividad como constructo depende del mundo real abordado por los sujetos que piensan, construyen y quienes viven diferentes circunstancias. Lo que indica que abordar el mundo real, no la realidad, que es otro constructo, es producto  de una interrelación objeto-sujeto-circuntancias. o contexto en que se da el conocer.


Hay algunas preguntas que nos conmueven y que nos acompañan toda la vida.

Una de las mías es esta: ¿qué vemos cuando vemos?
Y también ¿qué ven los demás?

Y ¿cómo ponernos de acuerdo?
Y, por supuesto, ¿quién decide?
0:34 – 0:38
El tema de la percepción me apasionó siempre.
Tal vez esto fue uno de los comienzos.

Un momento en que yo le pedí permiso a mi papá para ir a un campamento.
Ya me estaba diciendo que sí y se enteró de que había carpas mixtas.
0:49 – 0:54
Un desastre. Él debe haber visto algo así.
No sé qué ven Uds. Yo veo una pareja en una situación íntima. ¿Uds. también?

Pero yo era una chica de 13 años y, como la mayoría de los chicos, veía delfines. ¿Uds. no ven los delfines?

Algunos sí, otros no. Así empiezan las peleas.

Pero también así empieza la maravilla.
1:17 – 1:21
La oportunidad de ver desde distintos puntos de vista.

De conocer el mundo de muchas maneras diferentes.
1:24 – 1:26
Porque siempre las hay.

Porque nuestra percepción y nuestro conocimiento, no es algo que se nos da naturalmente como un reflejo de lo que hay, aunque nos educaron en eso, sino como un encuentro con el mundo.

Y el contexto es fundamental para darnos cuentas de cómo percibimos.

Por eso les voy a invitar a compartir este otro experimento, de Adelson.
1:48 – 1:55
Este experimento tiene dos baldosas marcadas: en una dice A y en otra dice B.

Yo las veo muy distintas: muchísimo más clara la B que la A.

Uds. también, ¿no?
2:05 – 2:09
Bueno, las páginas de ilusiones ópticas, los libros técnicos al respecto, todos dicen que parecen distintas pero que son iguales.

Y para convencernos agregan un argumento visual que es el siguiente.(Video)
Vamos a ir cambiando el contexto. Fíjense lo que pasa.
2:26 – 2:31
Un poco más. Ya empieza a cambiar, ¿no?

Mmm. Ahora las veo iguales.

Pero ¿por qué me dice que parecían distintas pero son iguales?
2:48 – 2:52
Antes las veía distintas. Ahora las veo iguales.
(Fin del video)

Lo único que cambió es mi percepción.

Yo no tuve un acceso a una realidad aparte de la percepción.
3:00 – 3:02
Algunos dirán, bueno, el que hizo el experimento sabe qué pigmento usó, y usó el mismo.

Pero resulta que el pigmento no tiene un color en sí.

El color es algo que se forma en un ser que puede percibir, una persona o un animal, en un contexto donde hay una luz; de noche, todos los gatos son pardos.
3:22 – 3:26
Si nos encandilan, todos son blancos.

Sea el que fuere el pigmento que haya ahí.

Porque los pigmentos solos no producen nada.

Nuestra experiencia del mundo como seres perceptivos es muy compleja.
3:37 – 3:40
Además del contexto, de la experiencia, de la imaginación –como le pasó a mi papá–
de cómo nos entrenaron -–los médicos ven algunas cosas en las ecografías que no veo ni de casualidad;
3:49 – 3:54
en la primera ecografía, debo decirlo, lo único que pude darme cuenta fueron las costillas de mi hija, el resto no entendía nada, y ellos lo pueden percibir–

Y es que percibir es una actividad que depende mucho también de la historia.
4:07 – 4:10
Y de lo que esperamos ver.

Ahora los voy a invitar a hacer otro experimento donde el lugar crucial va a ser la atención.

Así que les pido, como las maestritas de escuela, por favor, presten atención.

Vamos a ver un video.
4:22 – 4:27
Hay dos equipos, uno con camiseta blanca y otro con camiseta negra.

Se están pasando la pelota entre sí.
4:28 – 4:36
Hay dos pelotas y Uds. tienen que contar los pases de pelota del equipo blanco.

Nada más que los pases de pelota del equipo blanco.

¿Están listos?


(Fin del video)
30, guau.
Otra vez peleas. Pero yo los voy a invitar a algo divertido.
 Porque la diversidad tiene siempre una tensión.
5:11 – 5:16
Y en la tensión está la creatividad, la novedad y el conocimiento.
¿Vieron algo más? ¿Algo raro?

¿Algo que les llamó la atención?
Público: Sí.

Sí, por ahí atrás hay alguien que vio tal vez un animal grandote, del tamańo del gorila, o un oso.
5:35 – 5:41
Un bicho enorme que pasó, se quedó en el medio, bailó.

No lo vieron.

Vamos a verlo.

Ahí entra, en el centro, mueve los brazos, baila, se queda un rato.
(Fin del video)

Yo lo adoro.
Y lo hice montones de veces. Y es muy gracioso.
6:10 – 6:13
A veces sale bien aunque uno vaya como un estúpido y diga:

¿Hicieron el experimento del gorila invisible?

Igual, cuando están contando los pases una gran mayoría, aproximadamente más del 50 % por lo menos, no lo ve.
6:27 – 6:31
Y más divertido todaví  una investigación Simons y Chabris que fueron los que crearon una versión de este experimento y preguntaron a la gente si creería que vería un gorila o no contando los pases.
Dijeron, claro que sí, el 75 % de la gente cree que deberíamos verlo.
6:50 – 6:54
Y, sin embargo, muchos no lo vimos.
Los investigadores dicen que esto se debe a un fallo que llaman ceguera atencional.
Es decir, que la atención nos deja ciegos.
7:07 – 7:13
A mí me sorprendió todavía más la interpretación que el experimento.

¿A alguien se le ocurrió alguna vez que una piedra es ciega porque no puede ver?

Nunca diríamos eso.

¿Por qué tendríamos que ver nosotros algo cuando estamos prestando atención a otra cosa?

La verdad es que en nuestra cultura llevamos ya siglos de sospechar de los sentidos.
Ya Aristóteles, Platón, sospechaban de ellos.
7:44 – 7:47
Y en la actualidad los neuro-científicos sospechan del cerebro y dicen que nos engaña.

Es muy común que cuando nuestras expectativas fallan, salgamos a buscar al culpable.

Los científicos no son ninguna clase de excepción a esta regla y salen como en las películas “cherchez la femme”, ¿no?

Como en el policial, hay que ir a buscar al culpable.
Rara vez se cuestionan si las expectativas eran adecuadas.
8:12 – 8:17
Si realmente nuestra visión nos muestra lo que hay.

O si lo que falla es la teoría de la visión.

A la percepción no le falla nada.
Nosotros hablamos, por ejemplo, de ilusiones ópticas.
8:28 – 8:34
¿Uds. vieron algún anteojo ilusionar? Sería rarísimo, ¿no?
Cuando dicen que el cerebro nos engaña,
¿a qué “yo” estaría engañando mi cerebro?
Y me pregunto también, el cerebro,
¿es un órgano que tiene intenciones propias, separadas, independientes?
Yo creo que no. Creo que hay otra forma de pensar esto.
8:50 – 8:53
Y esta otra forma tiene que ver con estos recorridos de mi vida que me llevaron de la bioquímica a la filosofía, de la filosofía a los temas de redes, del trabajo sobre la percepción a la epistemología
–que es la teoría del conocimiento–y allí me di cuenta de que desde muy antiguo hay una teoría que no es nada intuitiva como dicen los autores del gorila
–este es el culpable que eligieron ellos: la intuición que nos engaña–
sino que hemos sido educados en ella.
9:24 – 9:31
Esta teoría empezó a existir en el Renacimiento.

Antes del Renacimiento no había nadie a quien se le ocurriera ver para creer.

No era un argumento. No era algo que la gente se planteara.
9:43 – 9:47
Recién en el Renacimiento aparecen cosas como esa caja que Uds. ven que se llama cámara oscura y que permite formar una imagen interna del David que está allí.

Lo elegí porque es renacentista.Más tarde vino la fotografía, pero en el medio para que Uds. se den cuenta de la dificultad que tuvo nuestra cultura para aceptar esto, existió Galileo.

Seguro que en la escuela les contaron lo que le costó a Galileo que alguien mirara por el famoso telescopio.
10:17 – 10:20
Y un par de siglos después vino Leeuwenhoek a quien nadie le creía cuando miraba por el microscopio
y encontraba una cantidad enorme de microbios
en lo que se creía que era agua pura.

10:32 – 10:37
Así que, desde el siglo XVI-XVII hasta el siglo XIX, esto de ver para creer tuvo muchas dificultades.
10:41 – 10:44
Inclusive Compte, que fue uno de los fundadores del positivismo,
dijo que el microscopio era un aparato maquiavélico
y no se podía confiar en él.
Pero una vez que se aceptó, ya en el siglo XIX, cuando ya nadie más discutió, se olvidó que alguna vez nadie había creído en ello.
11:03 – 11:06
Y se convirtió en el cristal con el que miramos el mundo.
Hoy los investigadores están desarrollando nuevos experimentos que no encajan bien con la idea de que vemos la realidad.
Todos aceptan que no vemos la realidad.
11:18 – 11:22
Lo increíble es que siguen creyendo en la realidad.
Es decir, en una realidad externa, independiente, que nació precisamente en ese momento.
En esta idea de separación entre el que conoce y aquello que conoce.
11:35 – 11:40
En eso que hoy llamamos teoría de la objetividad.
La objetividad es precisamente eso.

Creer que el conocimiento es un reflejo en la mente, o en el cerebro, depende del gusto del consumidor, de una realidad externa e independiente.
11:54 – 11:57
Lo que nosotros estuvimos haciendo en los experimentos es darnos cuenta de que lo que percibimos no es un reflejo del mundo, sino que depende de nuestra actividad, de nuestra forma de ser afectados, de nuestra historia, de la gente con la que estamos trabajando.
12:14 – 12:18
El conocimiento no es objetivo, pero tampoco subjetivo.

Una de las dificultades enormes para dejar de pensar en la objetividad, o para cuestionarla siquiera, tiene que ver con que nuestra cultura solo concibe dos cosas: o es objetivo o es subjetivo.
12:32 – 12:34
Pero los que vieron al gorila ¿qué son?
¿Objetivos o subjetivos? ¿Y los otros?

¿A quién ponemos en cada grupo?
12:42 – 12:46
Cuando nosotros abandonamos este pensamiento dicotómico que solo admite dos opciones y entramos en el mundo de la interactividad tenemos otra posibilidad de comprender nuestra experiencia del mundo.
12:59 – 13:00
Este es uno de los aspectos, para mí, clave.

Si yo cuando era chica hubiera podido saber todo esto que la investigación me ha permitido conocer ahora, la pelea con mi papá por lo menos la hubiera tomado de otra manera.
13:13 – 13:15
Yo no creo que mi papá me permitió ir
–porque me permitió ir al final al campamento, pero no fue porque lo convencí con nada de la objetividad; hice huelga de hambre–

No son solamente ideas en nuestra mente.

Son formas de relación en el mundo.

Tienen importancia personal en nuestras parejas, con nuestros padres, con nuestros amigos.

Tienen una importancia política fundamental.
13:40 – 13:44
Quien habla desde la objetividad, está pidiendo obediencia.

¿Quién puede ser el vocero de la objetividad?

Cuando Galileo invitó a mirar a las estrellas, había muchos mundos nuevos por descubrir.
13:56 – 14:02
Él no pedía una nueva Inquisición, una nueva verdad.

Él solo quería lugar para un nuevo punto de vista, para ampliar la experiencia.
14:08 – 14:12
Pero esa experiencia después se hizo cada vez más chiquita y cuando el objetivismo se consolidó, se consolidó también la idea de un único punto de vista verdadero, de un acceso único a la realidad.

Y el periodismo es uno de los ámbitos donde más existe esta creencia.
14:28 – 14:31
Vamos a compartirla. (Video)

Nora de Cortińas: Ella se arrimó para empujarlo y él aprovechó y la agarró así haciéndose el bueno.

Yo estoy… ¿Digo lo que estaba haciendo?
14:48 – 14:54
Puteando al policía. Le estaba diciendo de todo.

Porque sabía que era una falsedad.
14:57 – 15:03
Marcelo Ranea: Ella está reclamándole al tipo no sé si que la deje pasar, o que le devuelva el hijo, no sé, le está reclamando algo, mal.
15:08 – 15:15
Y, en un momento dado, ella le golpea el pecho al policía.

En ese momento en que ella le pega, él creo que se da cuenta de que no tiene ninguna manera de frenarla, de que la única manera de pararla era o dándole un cachetazo, o abrazándola.

Cora Gamarnik: Es muy importante la foto de Jorge Sánchez, porque muestra justamente otro gesto.
15:35 – 15:38
Es la misma situación en otro gesto de mucha tensión, en donde la Madre está gritándole y el policía la mira con un gesto muy desagradable.

Y esa foto Jorge Sánchez la expuso en la muestra de periodismo gráfico de 1983 junto con esta.

Los fotógrafos, cuando mostraron las fotos, mostraron las dos juntas.
16:00 – 16:04
Se abre la exposición el primer día y, al segundo día, van a la exposición y la foto de Sánchez no está.

(Fin del video)
16:14 – 16:23
Elegí muy a propósito este documental de Canal Encuentro,

“Fotos. Retrato un país”, y en particular este que habla de la “Marcha por la vida”, y los invito a verlo porque es  fantástico, porque esta foto no es falsa.

No es una foto trucada.
16:36 – 16:41
Para la idea de ver para creer, tuvo mucha importancia también la Imprenta.

La idea de una copia fiel de un original.
16:46 – 16:49
Ahí empieza a formarse esta idea.

Pero en la era de la interactividad, creer que existen copias fieles
16:56 – 17:01
cuando seńoras de 80 parecen de 15, gracias al Photoshop
–y el Photoshop puede ser manejado por cualquiera de nosotros–
resulta bastante más difícil.

Y no es que yo crea que la objetividad era posible antes, o que había fidelidad antes
–no soy tan ingenua– pero creo  que es más fácil darse cuenta ahora.
17:18 – 17:21
Creo que nuestros modos de vida contemporáneos nos habilitan para incorporar más puntos de vista, para reconocer la diversidad, para disfrutar de ella.

Les cuento que en el ańo 1802, Pierre-Simón de Laplace le presentó a Napoleón su libro científico recién terminado.

Uno de los más importantes de la época.
17:40 – 17:42
Napoleón sabía bastante de ciencia.

Lo hojea, lo mira y dice: “Pero aquí no habla de Dios”.

Porque en esa época no se podía escribir un libro científico que no hablara de Dios.

Y Pierre-Simón de Laplace, tan tranquilo, le dijo:
17:56 – 18:01
“Me pareció una hipótesis prescindible”.

Esa anécdota me anima.
18:03 – 18:08
Espero que en algunos siglos sea posible por lo menos conversar tranquilamente si existe o no la objetividad.

Desde luego, mi planteo es que no, no hay tal.

Que lo que llamamos objetividad es apenas un foco estrecho del mundo.
18:20 – 18:25
Esa foto no es falsa. La otra, tampoco.

Pero ninguna foto puede capturar ninguna realidad.
18:28 – 18:32
Ninguna observación captura las realidades.

Lo que nos captura son las ideologías, como la objetividad.
18:35 – 18:40
Por eso cuando me preguntan si hablando mal, porque así lo toman, de la objetividad hay que renunciar a la ciencia les digo: “De ninguna manera”.

La ciencia es una empresa creativa humana maravillosa que he cultivado, en la que sigo trabajando, que disfruto, que valoro y respeto.
18:58 – 19:01
La ideología objetivista es otra cosa.

No es ciencia, es ideología.
19:04 – 19:09
Y es un sistema a través del cual nos invitan a aceptar pasivamente en vez de comprender activamente.
19:13 – 19:17
Tal vez de lo que se trata en estos tiempos de interactividad, es de abrir nuestra experiencia a un mundo donde quepan muchas experiencias distintas.

Soltar amarras, emprender un viaje creativo que reconozca la diversidad en todas sus formas y en la legitimidad de los modos de conocer y trabaje para ver cómo convivimos en la diversidad sin aceptar que hay ningún punto de vista privilegiado.
Tal vez se trate de seguir el camino al que nos invitó Proust cuando decía que el acto real de conocimiento no consiste en encontrar nuevas tierras sino en ver con nuevos ojos.

Esa es mi invitación.